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ECML Publications


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A pluriliteracies approach to teaching for learning

A pluriliteracies approach builds on CLIL approaches to help learners become better meaning-makers, who can draw on content knowledge to communicate successfully across languages, disciplines and cultures. In this way it promotes deep learning and helps develop responsible, global citizens.

Available in English

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Language skills for successful subject learning. CEFR-linked descriptors for mathematics and history/civics (Language Descriptors)
These resources highlight challenges for young learners in subject classes where the language of instruction is not their first language. The focus is on minimum language standards in history/civics and mathematics for learners aged 12/13 and 15/16. The language descriptors are linked to CEFR levels A2, B1 and B2 and available in six languages.

Available in English and French

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Towards whole-school language curricula. Examples of practice in schools

The resources provide tools which help to clarify, develop and implement plurilingual, intercultural and inclusive whole-school policies in different contexts in ECML member states.

Available in English and German

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EPLC ‒ Content-based teaching for young learners

Inhaltsorientiertes Fremdsprachenlernen in der Grundschule heißt, die Fremdsprache nutzen, um sich Zugang zu Sachwissen und Sachinformationen zu verschaffen. Dieser Ansatz soll dazu beitragen, das Wissen aus den verschiedenen Disziplinen miteinander zu vernetzen und schließlich zu einem besseren Verständnis der uns umgebenden Welt führen. Die Publikation bietet dazu fächerübergreifende Module an, die universelle und zeitlose Themen behandeln und die einen speziellen kulturellen Bezug zum jeweiligen Zielsprachenland haben. Die Module enthalten die Beschreibung der Unterrichtsaktivitäten, Dokumente für die Lehrkräfte und Material für die Schülerinnen und Schüler. Alle Materialien können von der Internetseite heruntergeladen werden.

Available in French and German.

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CLIL-LOTE-START ‒ Content and Language Integrated Learning for Languages other than English

The publication provides insights into different forms and ways of putting into practice content and language integrated learning (CLIL) in primary and secondary education, pre- and in-service teacher education, as well as in the field of research and school development. It promotes the CLIL approach to a wider target public, beyond the area of specialists.

Available in English and German.

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European framework for CLIL teacher education
The publication offers a teacher training curriculum for CLIL that may be linked to learners' curricula. Adaptable curricular models, suitable for both foreign language and content teachers are based on a set of defined target professional competences, e.g.: "CLIL teachers are able to articulate and discuss CLIL with school’s internal and external stakeholders".
The publication is proposed as a conceptual lens and model, not as a prescriptive template.

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CLIL-LOTE-GO – Enseigner une discipline dans une autre langue: Methodologie et pratiques professionnelles

La théorie et la pratique de l’enseignement d’une matière par l’intégration d’une langue étrangère (EMILE, également appelé « formation bilingue ») sont présentées et complétées par des exemples tirés à la fois des classes de langues et des classes dematières. Il s’agit d’un manuel de formation pour l'enseignement des disciplines non linguistiques en langues française et allemande s'adressant à la formation initiale et continue. La publication est parue dans sa version française aux éditions Peter Lang et peut être acheté sur le site web de l’éditeur. Une version allemande paraîtra en 2012

Available in French.

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CONBAT – Plurilingualism and pluriculturalism in content-based teaching: A training kit

Educational institutions increasingly face the challenge of accommodating learners from a wide range of linguistic and cultural backgrounds in their classrooms. The training kit presents an innovative way of managing diversity in the classroom by combining plurilingual and pluricultural approaches with content-based instruction. The reader will discover how content-based and plurilingual activities can be linked to several subjects of the curriculum.

Available in English and French.

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CLIL Matrix

The CLIL project provides a series of indicators for teachers in a CLIL context to assess their teaching, together with examples of good practice to help them improve. The indicators cover the four aspects of culture, communication, cognition and community, each from the 4 key concepts – content, language, integration and learning. There is also further information about CLIL.

Available in English.

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CARAP/FREPA – A Framework of Reference for Pluralistic Approaches

The term pluralistic approaches to languages and cultures refers to didactic approaches which involve the use of several (or at least more than one) variety of languages or cultures simultaneously during the teaching process. By abandoning the "compartmentalised" view of an individual’s linguistic and cultural competence(s), this publication is a valuable step towards implementing the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages, in particular its rationale on plurilingual and intercultural competence.

Available in English, French and Italian.

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Windows on CLIL: Content and Language Integrated Learning in the European spotlight (Anne Maljers, David Marsh & Dieter Wolf, editors)

The publication provides insight into how CLIL is being carried out in 20 European countries (Armenia, Austria, Belgium (French-speaking), Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Malta, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom). The authors describe various attributes of good practice as found in their specific contexts. This involves focus on the linguistic situation of the respective country, the local 'history' of CLIL, general associated political and educational factors, types of CLIL models applied, and curriculum development and certification.

Available in English and French.

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Web literacy

The essential problem for a teacher using the web is how to retain the information he/she has come across and assessed as valuable for his/her students.

Available in English.

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Language across the curriculum. Network processing and material production in an international context

LAC represents an exciting new approach to foreign language learning at primary and secondary level, whereby children learn a language simultaneously with other practical exercises.

Available in English and French.

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ODYSSEUS – Second language at the workplace: Language needs of migrant workers: organising language learning for the vocational/workplace context

This book is constructed around a conviction by the authors of the key role of vocational and workplace-related second language provision towards social and economic integration and participation. Knowledge and communicative competences have become pivotal elements of vocational and professional performance at all hierarchical levels for all employees (mother-tongue speakers and speakers of other languages). This publication, which is the result of a cooperation project between the Council of Europe and the European Commission, is an invaluable resource for current and intending workplace language practitioners, as well as company personnel, unions and policy makers.

Available in English and French.

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Thematic collections: Presentation and evaluation of work carried out by the ECML from 1995 to 1999

The years 1995-1999 represented a period of considerable importance, both for the European Centre for Modern Languages (ECML) and for language teaching in general. In this time, following the launch of the ECML, it held a large number of workshops, initiated and supported research and development networks to promote language learning and teaching on a European scale.

Available in English and French.

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Learner autonomy: The teachers' views

Learner Autonomy: The Teachers' View is the result of a research project initiated during ECML workshop No.8/97 entitled 'Aspects of Teaching Methodology in Bilingual Classes at Secondary School Level' which was held in Graz in May 1997. As the title suggests the project set out to be a research exercise which aimed to identify teachers' attitudes towards Learner Autonomy.

Available in English and French.

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TEMOLAYOLE – Teaching modern languages to young learners: teachers, curricula and materials

The Temolayole Book is the outcome of a conference in Hungary on the teaching of languages to young learners. It consists of 10 articles recounting different aspects of good practice in this field, with an emphasis on teacher education, and the design of curricula and teaching materials. A range of innovatory projects are described, and topics include action research, the use of stories, methodology and cross border exchanges.

Available in English and Hungarian.

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European Commission Resources


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CLIL/EMILE – The European Dimension: Actions, Trends and Foresight Potential

This report comprises analysis, observations, comment and recommendations on CLIL/EMILE with respect to recent literature, actions, and developments in pre-primary, primary, general secondary, secondary vocational and further education. It analyses results of experimentation and outlines the extent to which the approach is used in Europe. Comment and conclusions focus on the relevance of CLIL/EMILE for the European Commission’s overall language objectives, the potential of the approach for improving the quality of foreign language teaching, and increasing the number of successful foreign language learners. It presents examples of innovation and good practice, defines conditions for successful extension, and makes proposals for further developments in this area at the European and national levels.

Available in English.

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Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) at school in Europe

The present Eurydice survey reflects a first ‘European’ insight into content and language integrated learning. It is a means of assessing attempts at all levels to promote new methodologies in language learning. It contains a detailed analysis of how the provision of CLIL is organised, the status of the target languages, the subjects concerned in the curriculum, and measures for the training and recruitment of appropriate teachers, the shortage of whom is identified as one of the main barriers to implementing this type of tuition. This original and rich appraisal is unquestionably an essential reference source on CLIL.

Available in 8 languages.

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External Resources


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Administrative CLIL handbook

This Handbook, created under the authority of the Estonian Language Immersion Centre, is intended for teachers and administrators. Although written specifically for those new to the program, professionals experienced in the immersion approach to second language acquisition will also find in it a myriad of useful tips and pertinent insights.

Available in English.

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CLIL for young learners and parents: Using Languages to Learn and Learning to Use Languages

This publication is a clear and concise introduction to CLIL: what it is, how it works and how it improves foreign language learning.

Available in English.

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Profiling European CLIL Classrooms: Languages Open Doors (European platform for Dutch education & University of Jyväskylä)

This book provides a description of five CLIL dimensions relating to culture, environment, language, content, and learning, as found in schools and colleges across Europe. Each of these dimensions comprises differing focus points that are realised according to a number of major factors, such as age-range, sociolinguistic environment, and the degree of exposure to CLIL.

Available in English.

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Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL): A Development Trajectory

This thesis overview aims to describe the inter-relatedness of CLIL with respect to good educational practice and new insights through certain studies of the mind and brain which influence our understanding of educational practices. Thus it attempts to give attention to some aspects of the forces that have enabled the development trajectory to be driven. This is an attempt to explain, for the first time, how and why this particular innovation became established in educational practice internationally in respect to selected driving forces.

Available in English.

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