to the needs, objectives and purposes of the users and the social, cultural and educational characteristics of the context; appropriate and fit for purpose.
Aspects of relevance include:
a. user-centredness (effective CEFR-based needs analysis; taking into account strengths and weaknesses)
b. targeting to user level (building onto previous knowledge: Involving an optimal level of innovation / complexity / new information: slightly challenging but manageable with supported learning)
c. feasibility (realism: compatibility between plans and context: e.g. amount of time, money and expertise available)
d. individualisation (taking account of learning experience, learning styles; dispositions/preferences)
e. accountability (societal and political needs and priorities)
approach(es) to language education are visibly aligned to and consistent with the CEFR and take account of state of the art knowledge and the context; practical implementation developed cyclically on basis of evidence.
Aspects of validity include:
a. authenticity (situations, texts, tasks reflect the real world)
b. interactivity (CEFR action-oriented approach: tasks stimulate interaction between competences and encourage strategies and critical/creative thinking)
c. standardisation (valid and reliable interpretation of CEFR levels aligned to official, international examples; curriculum and assessment procedures are properly implemented)
d. consistency (between stated approach and implemented practice; evaluation enhanced through defined criteria; collaboration and moderation techniques employed to enhance trustworthiness)
e. ongoing validation (successive checking, revising, and improving of materials, procedures etc, on the basis of evidence, to ensure that procedures work adequately and that results can be trusted)
public availability of key information.
Aspects of transparency include:
a. clarity of aims (descriptors make these clear to learners, parents, future employers, other stakeholders)
b. clarity about achievement (reports, attestations, certificates etc. make individual profile and level attained clear to learners, parents, future teachers, employers etc)
c. exemplification of standards (e.g. benchmarked videos of learner performance expected at each level, learners describing what they can do with their language)
joined-up thinking and internal consistency.
Aspects of coherence include:
a. constructive alignment (CEFR levels used to ensure coherence between curriculum, teaching and assessment)
b. internal coherence (balanced relationship between complementary elements: presentation / practice, authentic tasks / enabling activities; teacher-led work / group work, etc.)
c. sequential coherence (logical structure in the end-objectives set for successive stages - e.g. years/sectors or the stages of a project; compatibility of approaches in successive stages; revision)
d. lateral coherence across language curricula (coordination of objectives, approaches, teacher networking, transversal approach)
opportunities to get involved, acquire perspective, make choices.
Aspects of inclusiveness include:
a. diversity (promotion of linguistic/cultural diversity; creative and pluralistic approaches at the forefront)
b. involvement (participation is encouraged, opportunities are created for personal engagement)
c. partnership (possibility to make choices, contribute to decisions, share responsibility)
results are transferable, transformative, and long-lasting.
Aspects of sustainability include:
a. maintenance (commitment from relevant decision-makers to ensure continued support for structure, resources structure, and modalities in order to ensure continuation)
b. transferability (long-lasting learning that can be applied to new situations and challenges)
c. generalisability (development of transversal competences and strategies, problem-solving ability, awareness-raising: training towards self-direction/regulation)
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