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    Majority language in multilingual settings
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Majority language in multilingual settings


OVERVIEW
Training kit
Resources

Resources for teaching

Additional information in German available on German version of page.

  • Ja-Ling (Janua Linguarum) - The gateway to languages (ECML project)

http://jaling.ecml.at/
How can education prepare individuals to face the cultural and linguistic diversity of the society they are living in? A certain number of innovations have been started up in several countries, mainly in primary schools, under different titles (éveil/ouverture aux langues, language awareness, Sprachaufmerksamkeit). The Ja-Ling project offers didactic materials and evaluation tools in English and a number of other languages.

  • Planning for Bilingual Learners: An Inclusive Curriculum. Edited by Maggie Gravelle 2000

http://www.multiverse.ac.uk/attachments/f3949e92-3975-4142-ad44-68355fe44bbf.pdf [visited 26.4.2009]

The introduction to this book is available online and provides a useful introduction for mainstream subject teachers to ways of supporting bilingual learners.

  • The NATEPACK: Multicultural Perspectives in the English Classroom

http://www.nate.org.uk/index.php?page=11&pub=170 [visited 26.4.2009]

Though this is only available for purchase, it is a practical resource pack for English (as ML) teachers containing photocopiable worksheets. NATE is the National Association for Teachers of English, the subject association for all teachers of English.

  • English for Pupils With Diverse Backgrounds. Richard Quarshie.

http://ite2.zygoconsulting.com/ite_topics/diverse_backgrounds/001.html [visited 26.4.2009]

This provides a framework for diversity for teachers of English as ML. 

Including ideas for teaching after the l'éveil aux langues approach to face the plurilingual reality of schools today.

Summary (in French)

Resources page: http://www.lynkreach.co.uk/Resources.html

The booklet provides information and teaching ideas for including a plurilingual approach in schools. There are exercises for specific languages included (which can easily be adapted for other languages).

  • EMA Portal - Online Support for Ethnic Minority Attainment

Information and resources for pupils for whom English is an additional language. You can search the resources by key stage, subject and language (direct link to resource page: http://www.emaonline.org.uk/ema/index.cfm?p=resources,res_search&item=eal)

  • Jonckheere, S., De Doncker, H., De Smedt, H. (2009). Talen op een Kier:
    Talensensibilisering voor het basisonderwijs. Mechelen: Plantyn

    A book about Awakening to Languages from Belgium, in Flemish. You can order it  here.
     
  • FREPA - Framework of reference für pluralistic approaches (CARAP): Teaching materials
    http://carap.ecml.at/Teachingmaterials/DB/tabid/2700/language/en-GB/Default.aspx

    The database CARAP-FREPA – Online teaching materials offers teaching activities which fall within the scope of pluralistic approaches to languages and cultures. 
    The purpose of this collection of materials, which include input in different languages, is to facilitate access to classroom activities which will help learners master the knowledge, skills and attitudes which the framework lists as « resources » and which can be developed by pluralistic approaches. All the materials proposed refer explicitly to descriptors of resources as they can be found in the framework.

Academic references

Block, D. 2007. Bilingualism: Four assumptions and four responses. In Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 1,1: 66-82.
Embedded in ongoing debates about multiculturalism in nation-states such as the UK are frequent references to bilingualism. These references range from negative assessments of the phenomenon to more positive views. In this paper, I present and critique four assumptions that are often made about bilinguals and bilingualism, not only by the lay public but also by academics. I conclude with some thoughts on how my discussion of bilingualism might be relevant to the readers of Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching.

Cummins, J. 1996. Negotiating identities: Education for empowerment in a diverse society.
Ontario: California Association for Bilingual Education.

The book focuses on power relations operating in the broader society and how they influence the interactions that occur between teachers and students in the classroom. These interactions can be empowering or disempowering for both teachers and students. It is argued that culturally diverse students are disempowered educationally. This implies that the students will succeed academically to the extent that the patterns of interaction in school reverse those that prevail in the society at large. A commitment to helping all students succeed academically requires the educators to challenge aspects of the power structure in the wider society.

Cummins, Jim (2004): Language, power and pedagogy - bilingual children in the crossfire.
Clevedon [u.a.]: Multilingual Matters.

 
Cummins, J. 2006. Identity texts: The imaginative construction of self through multiliteracies pedagogy.
In O. Garcia, T. Skutnabb-Kangas & E. Torres-Guzmán, María (eds.) Imagining multilingual schools. Language in education and globalization. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 51–68.

The article highlights the centrality of the interpersonal space created in the interactions among teachers and learners. Optimal academic development within this interpersonal space occurs only when there is both maximum cognitive engagement and maximum identity investment on the part of learners.

Gravelle, Maggie (ed.) 2000. Planning for bilingual learners:
an inclusive curriculum. Stoke on Trent. Trentham Books

This book seeks to give teachers advice on developing the language ability of multilingual children, especially with regard to English as the majority language of the society. The ideas presented here do not only want to provide insight into the theories of second and foreign language learning, but also to give interested teaching staff teaching ideas that can be used in real life situations directly.

Lehtinen, K. 2006. Maahanmuuttajataustainen oppilas äidinkielen ja kirjallisuuden tunneilla. In S. Grünthal & J. Pentikäinen (eds.) Kulmakivi. Luokanopettajan äidinkieli ja kirjallisuus. Otava. 84–103.[An immigrant pupil in the class of mothertongue and literature]
The article deals with the pedagogical issues concerning e.g. how to evaluate language skills, how to teach language via literature and how to support the learner in raising vocabulary.

Leung, C., Harris, R. and Rampton, B. 1997. The idealised native speaker, reified ethnicities and classroom realities.
In TESOL Quarterly, 31, 3 Language and Identity, 543-560.

This offers an account of the complexities of the multilingual classroom, in which traditional assumptions about the notion of the native speaker (of English) and of the homogeneous nature of learners of English as a Second Language are challenged.

Luukka, M-R., Pöyhönen, S., Huhta, A., Taalas, P., Tarnanen, M. & Keränen, A. 2008. Maailma muuttuu - mitä tekee koulu? Äidinkielen ja vieraiden kielten tekstikäytänteet koulussa ja vapaa-ajalla.
[The world changes – how does the school respond? Mother tongue and foreign language literacy practices in school and in free-time.] University of Jyväskylä: Centre for Applied Language Studies.

The project dealt with literacy practices of Finnish and immigrant students and teachers of mother tongue and foreign languages. The aim of the project was to explore and interpret literacy practices both in school and out-of-school contexts. The project aimed also to evaluate to what extent Finnish school is able to meet the challenges of the knowledge society, to explore pedagogies and teaching practices that prepare young people for the literacy challenges of globalized, networked and culturally diverse world and, finally, to develop proposals for interventions in teaching, curriculum planning, assessment and teacher education.
Project website: http://www.jyu.fi/hum/laitokset/solki/en/research/projects/tolp [visited 26.4.2009]

Safford, K. and Costley T. 2008. 'I didn't speak for the first year': Silence, Self-Study and Student Stories of English Language Learning in Mainstream Education
In Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 2,2: 136-151.

The paper draws on interviews with 17- and 18-year-old students learning English as an Additional Language (EAL) in mainstream secondary schools in the UK, where the students describe their experiences as new arrivals and their resources and strategies for accessing and learning English in multiple social and academic contexts. Silence and self-study emerge as key survival strategies for these students, whilst multilingual family and friendship networks play key roles in supporting their day-to-day schoolwork and future ambitions. In these student narratives, school policies and practices do not appear to take account of the multilayered nature of learning English for a wide range of purposes which demand the integration of discrete linguistic skills with culturally situated registers and practices. Although the UK daily grows more, not less, multilingual, interviews over several years with different cohorts of students learning EAL seem to suggest that their experiences and strategies have not changed. The paper reflects on how the mainstream classroom looks and sounds to such students, and how their voices might effectively influence pedagogy and practice in these contexts.


Websites

Languages in education, languages for education: A platform of resources and references for plurilingual and intercultural education
http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/langeduc/LE_PlatformIntro_en.asp
After producing reference documents such as the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages taught as “foreign” languages, the Council of Europe’s Language Policy Division proposes a new instrument, in the form of this Platform, enabling member states to benefit from the experience and expertise of other member states in formulating their programmes relating to languages of schooling and all language teaching.

Website of the languages of school education project of the Language Policy Division of the Council of Europe
http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/Schoollang_EN.asp
The project „is concerned with the development of effective skills in the language(s) of instruction which are essential for successful learning across the whole curriculum. This project deals with the language(s) of instruction in school which is most often the national or official language(s) and also the mother tongue of the majority of students; in a number of contexts this language is of course their second language where they have a different mother tongue“. MARILLE would like to complement the work done in this project by concentrating on the classroom perspective and the work of teachers in majority language classrooms. 

List of Thematic Studies for the Prague Conference „“Languages of schooling within a European framework for languages of education: learning, teaching, assessment”
http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/Prague_studies07_EN.asp
Offers access to a number of individual studies dealing with different aspects of the languages of education project under the headings: Languages as a subject within languages of education, Language across the curriculum within languages of education, Evaluation and assessment within language(s) of education,  A European reference document for languages of education.

Website of the ECML project VALEUR (Valuing All Languages in Europe)
http://www.ecml.at/mtp2/Valeur/html/Valeur_E_Results.htm
The VALEUR project (2004-2007) took as its focus the ‘additional’ languages of Europe. These are defined as all languages in use in contexts where they are not ‘national’, ‘official’, or ‘dominant’ languages. They include ‘migrant’ languages, ‘regional/minority’ languages, sign languages and ‘non-territorial’ languages of diasporas such as Yiddish and Romani. In MARILLE we can use some of VALEURs results but will focus on integrating ‚additional‘ languages in the majority language classroom. 

Website of the ECML project LEA (Language Educator Awareness. Developing plurilingual and pluricultural awareness in language teacher education)
http://www.ecml.at/mtp2/Lea/html/LEA_E_Results.htm
The LEA training kit comprises a set of practical instruments designed to help teacher educators introduce the essential aspects of plurilingualism and pluriculturalism to language teachers and learners. Some of LEAs results will be very valuable to MARILLE although we are not concerned with developing teacher training materials (yet!).

Website of the ECML project Ja-Ling (Janua Linguarum) -The introduction of language awareness into the curriculum
http://jaling.ecml.at/
How can education prepare individuals to face the cultural and linguistic diversity of the society they are living in? Learners experience this diversity since school, through language multiplicity which they face and learn, but also, more frequently through the diversity of their origins.It is in this context that a certain number of innovations have been started up in several countries, mainly in primary schools, under different titles (éveil/ouverture aux langues, language awareness, Sprachaufmerksamkeit). The Ja-Ling project offers a wealth of didactic materials and evaluation tools that MARILLE has to look into to determine the applicability in secondary school majority language classrooms.

SOPPI – suomeksi oppimassa – SOPPI – learning in Finnish
http://virtuaaliyliopisto.jyu.fi/soppi
The SOPPI-website has been designed for the purposes of teacher education on all educational levels. It is used on both the initial and the in-service teacher training of all school-subjects. Soppi offers viewpoints on what it is like to learn in Finnish, when it is not a learner’s mother tongue, and what teachers should take into account when teaching linguistically and culturally heterogeneous groups.The website consists of three parts: 1) videoclips and tasks on the language skills of immigrant pupils and on supervising sessions in clubs organizing support for homework; 2) a section in which textbooks on various schoolsubjects are explores from 3 points of view: support for strategic reading, language and comprehension and cultural understanding; 3) information on how to adapt instruction for diverse learners.

Kielikoulutuspolitiikan verkosto – Network for language education policies
http://www.jyu.fi/hum/laitokset/solki/tutkimus/projektit/kieliverkosto/en (in Finish, English and Swedish)
The Centre for Applied Language Studies, University of Jyväskylä (Finland), coordinates a new, interdisciplinary network for language education policies starting 2009. The Network provides a new infrastructure, which acknowledges the existing knowledge and expertise in language education; brings together researchers, policy makers, practitioners and participants in language education; strengthens the link between research and political decision making; and takes an active role in public discussion on language education policies.

Multiverse
http://www.multiverse.ac.uk/
This is a support site for teacher educators and student teachers which offers a wide range of resources and links relating to the theme of diversity in the classroom. There are pages on EAL and on bilingualism, and these can be cross referenced to specific subjects, such as to English.

A Level English Language website
http://www.ling.lancs.ac.uk/alevel/index.htm
This website is designed to support teachers and learners with the Advanced level English Language (as ML) examination, and has a useful question and answer section. This examination includes work on linguistic diversity and bilingualism, not only English. It has links to a wide range of resources.

Our Languages
http://www.ourlanguages.org.uk/
The 'Our Languages' project supports community languages teaching and learning and aims to encourage community cohesion, celebrate pupil achievement and promote plurilingualism. Regional partnerships across England involve schools in the project in a variety of activities. The website provides case studies as well as information on accreditation, community language provision and current research, events and links related to community languages education.

ITE English
http://www.ite.org.uk/
This site has been created to assist those involved in training teachers of English. Although specifically aimed at teachers in England, it may well prove useful for tutors in other countries. The website is organised as follows:
- Topics which offers an overview and an approach to each subject a tutor may encounter. These will be updated as material is submitted by our contributors.
- Research featuring results, analysis and a breakdown of recent research projects in the field.
- Discussion Papers
- Professional Support - a selection of resources and advice for tutors.
A searchable index includes English for pupils with diverse backgrounds.

Teachers TV 
http://www.teachers.tv/
This offers a wealth of TV programmes from Teachers TV, a television channel devoted entirely to teachers. It is searchable and includes many 15 minute programmes relating to English (as ML) and issues of diversity.

„EduFLE.net, le site coopératif du FLE"
http://www.edufle.net/
A website in French about the didactics of French including intercultural education. With teaching resources.

Le projet SAEL
http://www.eurosael.eu/, in French, English, Italian and Dutch
"The aim of the SAEL project is to facilitate the implementation of language policy recommendations aimed at improving the quality of language teaching in Europe." The site offers some good practice examples, too.

La clé des langues
http://cle.ens-lyon.fr/jsp/accueil_cdl.jsp?CODE=70201836&LANGUE=0, in French
This site offers resources and information for different language which are taught in school. Plurilingual approaches have their own section with links to further projects (go directly to Plurilangues)

Websites working with l'éveil aux langues (awakening to languages)
Education et Diversité Linguistique et Culturelle EDiLiC
http://www.edilic.org/fr/fr_index.php?xtref=http://plurilangues.e-monsite.com/
Plurilangues
http://plurilangues.e-monsite.com/
Awakening to languages is not the teaching of a particular language. It aims to enable schoolchildren to come in contact different languages and to actively discovery the great diversity of languages in the world. The children acquire knowledge and competences regarding languages in general that are useful in every type of learning, included that of the language of the school. As for the classes that are linguistically heterogeneous, awakening to languages is a pedagogical tool that enables the integration of the languages spoken by the schoolchildren (adapted from the EDiLiC-website).

Language and Identity in the National Curriculum: Class Files
The School Of English Literature, Language and Linguistics at the University of Sheffield
http://school-of-english.dept.shef.ac.uk/langworkscheme/classfiles.html
These 12 class files contain powerpoints on how to teach the different aspects of language and identity in majority language classrooms. Language in these ideas means different dialects, too. The powerpoints show how the idea was carried out practically, but they don't contain worksheets etc.

Britkid: Getting to know different British school kids online
www.britkid.org/
On this website you meet a group of 9 British school children who come from different language and culture backgrounds. You can find information about their families, their languages, their religion, their food etc. They live in the fictious city called "Britchester".

IAIMTE: International Association for the Improvement of Mother Tongue Education
www.ilo.uva.nl/projecten/gert/iaimte
This association aims at encouraging good practice in mother tongue teaching and the networking of mother tongue teachers in different languages and from different cultures. The conference 2010 takes place in Hildesheim and and covers the topic of "Learning and Teaching: Language and Literature".

FREPA - Framework of reference für pluralistic approaches (CARAP): Teaching materials
http://carap.ecml.at/Teachingmaterials/DB/tabid/2700/language/en-GB/Default.aspx
The database CARAP-FREPA – Online teaching materials offers teaching activities which fall within the scope of pluralistic approaches to languages and cultures. The purpose of this collection of materials, which include input in different languages, is to facilitate access to classroom activities which will help learners master the knowledge, skills and attitudes which the framework lists as « resources » and which can be developed by pluralistic approaches. All the materials proposed refer explicitly to descriptors of resources as they can be found in the framework.

Professional networks

(in alphabetical order of countries)

Albania

ELTA: English Language Teacher Association
Website in English: http://eltaal.org
Since 2002, the association works for the professional development of English teachers in Albania, including the yearly conference and other teacher training activities. Teachers can be members regardless whether they teach in private or in public schools.

Austria

AG Germanistik: Working group of German teachers at academic secondary schools (Gymnasien)
Contact via AG Germanistik in Vienna:
Martina Haunschmidt (martina.haunschmidt@gmail.com) and
Maria-Rita Helten-Pacher (maria-rita.helten-pacher@univie.ac.at).
Interest group of German teachers mainly focused on organising in-service training for secondary school teachers at teacher training colleges.

ÖDaF: Österreichischer Verband für Deutsch als Fremd- und Zweitsprache
Website in German: www.oedaf.at
Association of teachers of German as a foreign or second language in all areas of education (schools, adult education, private tuition...).

Croatia

Association of Teachers of Croatian
Website in Croatian: www.dphj.hr
The Association  promotes general and specific aims and interests of  the Croatian language as a majority language of instruction,a language of profession,a school subject and a language of science.Its activities include:
organization and practising scientific and professional meetings, expert-methodological seminars, outreach seminars, study tours, organizing or working on various forms of discussions, lectures, cultural activities, round tables, etc.
maintaining social and multilateral relationships with other professional, scientific, educational, cultural and academic institutions and associations,
publishing  scientific and professional journals and other publications, according to the  law.

Cyprus

Cyprus Pedagogical Institute
Website in Greek: www.pi.ac.cy

Finland

Äidinkielen opettajain liitto (ÄOL): The Association of Finnish Mother Tongue Teachers
Website in Finnish: www.aidinkielenopettajainliitto.fi

The Association of Teachers of Finnish as a Second Language
Website in Finnish: http://s2opettajat.yhdistysavain.fi/

Opetusalan Ammattijärjestö OAJ: Finnish Trade Union of Teachers
Website in Finnisch, Swedish and English: www.oaj.fi
The union represents teachers at various school levels and institutes of learning, ranging from day-care center teachers to lecturers in universities and vocational school teachers. We also work together with the Finnish Teacher Student Association SOOL and veteran teachers. In Finland over 95 percent of the teachers are OAJ members.
The OAJ is in charge of the safeguarding of teachers' interests in Finland. It is the only trade union which conducts negotiations on the terms of the teachers' employment contracts. Salaries and working hours are determined in the collective agreement.

France

CIEP: Centre internationale d'études pédagogiques
Website in French, English, German and other languages: www.ciep.fr
The CIEP has three main missions: educational cooperation in the education and training sector; public service as a provider; and influence, as a laboratory for ideas.The two areas of activity are: education (general, higher and vocational education, qualifications recognition); and languages (French language, languages and mobility, evaluation and certifications).

AIRDF: Association Internationale pour la Recherche en Didactique du Français
Website in French: www.airdf.org
This association works in the field of the research of didactics in French (including plurilinguality) with regard to all the francophone countries. To access the whole site registration is needed.

EDiLiC:Education et Diversité Linguistique et Culturelle
Website in French and English: www.edilic.org
EDiLiC international association was created in 2001 by partners of the Evlang program. It is open to anyone wishing to contribute to the promotion of the awakening to languages. This includes an integrated curriculum, involving other plural approaches of languages and cultures.

Germany

DGFF: German society for foreign language research (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Fremdsprachenforschung)
Website in German, English, French and Spanish: www.dgff.de
"The DGFF wants to bring together researchers who are active in one or more of the following field: (1) teaching and learning of foreign languages; (2) acquisition and use of second languages; (3) multilingualism; (4) intercultural learning."

GAL e.V.: Gesellschaft für Angewandte Linguistik
Website in German: www.gal-ev.de
The GAL is a member of AILA and has at the moment about 1000 members. They conduct research and search for improvements in the field of written and oral communication in diverse field of working and daily activities. Once a year there is the annual conferences, and GAL gives out two regular publications: the journal Zeitschrift für Angewandte Linguistik (ZfAL) and the book series forum Angewandte Linguistik (fAL).

FaDaF: Fachverband für Deutsch als Fremdsprache
Website in German: www.fadaf.de
The FaDaF wants to foster the learning of German and thereby intercultural contacts and understanding. Furthermore it wants to assist the language learning of foreign students. It is an association working for everyone in the field of German as a Foreign Language, including teaching personal and students. In order to inform about didactical and research positions and the policy on higher education, the FaDaF organizes an annual conference and two symposia.

Netzwerk Mehrsprachigkeit e.V. (Network for Multilingualism)
Website in German: www.netzwerk-mehrsprachigkeit.de
The aim of the network is to support people and institutions who work with multilingualism and foreign/second language acquisition (especially with regards to children and their parents). They organize expert conferences, seminars and trainings and try to be present on compatible fairs. The core of their work is the interdisciplinary connection of theory and practice.

Greece

Greek Applied Linguistics Association
Website in Greek and English: www.enl.auth.gr/gala/
"GALA promotes scientific research carried out within the framework of Linguistics and Applied Linguistics, and facilitates distribution and exchange of information. It also encourages and supports cooperation, at both a national and an international level, in everything related to linguistic research and its applications, with particular regard to education and civilization. "

Iceland

The Icelandic Teachers' Union
Website in Icelandic, English and Danish: www.ki.is
The Icelandic Teachers' Union was founded on 1 January 2000. It is a joint organization for all teachers, headteachers, deputy headteachers, and student counsellors, in preschools, primary schools, secondary schools, and music schools – with the exception of headtechers in secondary schools. The Icelandic Teachers' Union is a member of EI (Education International), and is an active participant in the NLS (Nordic Teachers' Council, www.n-l-s.org), a cooperative forum for teachers' associations in the Nordic countries.

The Association of Foreign Language Teachers in Iceland (STIL)
Website in Icelandic and English: http://stil-is.weebly.com/
The Association of Foreign Language Teachers in Iceland is an umbrella organization of teachers of Danish, English, French, German, Norwegian, Spanish and Swedish in Iceland. With a membership of 600, its role is to provide language teachers with support and assistance in their professional development. STIL cooperates with various educational bodies both in Iceland and abroad.
STIL is a member of UNESCO and the Nordic Baltic Region of FIPLV (The International Federation of Language Teachers Associations)

The Association of Mother Language (Icelandic)Teachers in Iceland (SM)
Website in Icelandic: www.ki.is/sm
The Association of Mother Language Teachers in Iceland is an organization of teachers of all school levels. Its role is to provide language teachers with support and assistance in their professional development.  SM cooperates with various educational bodies both in Iceland and abroad.

Ísbrú (Icebridge)
Website in Icelandic: www.isbru.is
Icebridge is the Association of Language Teachers teaching Icelandic as a second language in Iceland. It is an organization of teachers of all school levels. Its role is to provide the teachers with support and assistance in their professional development.  Icebridge cooperates with various educational bodies.

Ireland

ELSTA: English Language Support Teacher's Association
Website in English: http://elstaireland.co.cc
Contact person: Mary Ryan (maryyran@elsta.ie)
The (quite young) association shall give teachers the opportunity to prepare for the growing challenges in the teaching of English as a second or other language. Some information is only accessible after registration.

Lithuania

Language Teachers' Association of Lithuania: Lietuvos kalbų pedagogų asociacija ( LKPA)
Website in Lithuanien, English and Russian: www.lkpa.uki.vu.lt
The Association of Language Teachers of Lithuania was founded in December 2006 to build bridges between the existing associations of teachers of English, Lithuanian and some other languages as well as between professionals who work for universities, schools and language centres. The association operates on territorial , interest group and association (already operating language teachers' associations) basis.
At present, there are 7 institutional and over one hundred individual members . They are teachers of the most popular languages taught in Lithuania: English, German, French, Italian, Russian, Lithuanian and some others.
The association became a member of FIPLV in 2008 and is currently member of the REAL 2 consortium.

Malta

MUT: Malta Union of Teachers
Website in English: www.mut.org.mt
The MUT was founded in 1919 and is nowadays the teacher's trade union. They have an office in Valetta and publish the magazine "The Teacher".

Slovenia

National Education Insitute
Website in Slovenian, English, Hungarian and Italian: www.zrss.si
"We creatively link achievements in the sciences, arts, economics and humanities with experiences from teaching practices as well as prepare solutions for improving the quality of education and training."

SIAE: The Slovenian Institute for Adult Education
Website in Slovenian and English: www.siae.si
"In cooperation with and in support to networks comprising of about 300 adult education public and private institutions as well as NGOs, SIAE has been working on the development of non-formal education and learning, adult literacy programmes and access to education and learning for marginalised target groups, adult education information and guidance, quality in adult education, training and professional development of adult educators, promotion of lifelong learning (Lifelong Learning Week) and many other areas."

PEI/ERI: The Educational Research Institute
Website in Slovenian and English: www.pei.si
"The Educational Research Institute (ERI) is the central research institution in Slovenia for research in education undertaking basic research, development and applied projects on issues of current interest in all sectors of education and related areas."

United Kingdom

The Association for Language Awareness
Website in English: www.languageawareness.org
The Association for Language Awareness aims at supporting and promoting activities across the whole breadth of Language Awareness. These are conducted in different fields of Language Awareness (e.g. mother tongue learning, foreign language learning, teacher education, language use in professional settings), at a variety of levels (e.g. primary, secondary and tertiary education, professional training and practice), and with objectives in a range of domains (e.g. effects on language performance, on attitudes to language etc).
The ALA pursues this goal in a variety of ways: for example, by collecting and disseminating information on Language Awareness initiatives, by promoting research into Language Awareness, by supporting initiatives undertaken by organisations with overlapping interests (e.g AILA), and by arranging conferences and meetings for practitioners and theorists in all spheres of teaching and learning, as well as for others with interests in Language Awareness.

National Association for Language Development in the Curriculum (NALDIC)
Website in English: www.naldic.org.uk
The National Association for Language Development in the Curriculum (NALDIC) is the UK professional body for all those interested in raising the achievement of bilingual pupils with English as an Additional Language. NALDIC was inaugurated in 1993 and since its formation has acted as the voice of the profession. It provides a professional forum for:
- Teaching and learning of English as an Additional Language
- Supporting bilingualism
- Raising the achievement of ethnic minority learners
- The development and understanding of this field of education
The website contains comprehensive information, including case studies, about the range of research projects and resources which have NALDIC involvement. They have long lobbied for improved status for teachers of EAL and also for mainstream support of first languages in order to support plurilingualism. They also promote themed activities such as the use of ICT to promote plurilingualism.

National Association for the Teaching of English (NATE)
Website in English: www.nate.org.uk
Professional subject association for those working with English in education in any capacity. Promotes innovation in classrooms and teacher's professional development through research, publications and conferences.

International

AILA: Association Internationale de Linguistique Appliquée / International Association of Applied Linguistics.
Website in English: www.aila.info
"AILA is the international federation of national or regional associations of Applied Linguistics. Through its member associations, AILA currently has a membership of more than 8.000 individuals worldwide who as researchers, policy makers or practitioners are active in the field of Applied Linguistics.
Applied Linguistics is an interdisciplinary field of research and practice dealing with practical problems of language and communication that can be identified, analysed or solved by applying available theories, methods and results of Linguistics or by developing new theoretical and methodological frameworks in Linguistics to work on these problems. Applied Linguistics differs from Linguistics in general mainly with respect to its explicit orientation towards practical, everyday problems related to language and communication."

EUROSLA: European Second Language Association
Website in English: http://eurosla.org
EUROSLA is a society for people with a research interest in Second Language Acquisition.They run an annual conference for our members, and a number of specialised seminar meetings. Some of this work is published in our annual publication. The society welcomes new members whatever their nationality, geographical location or theoretical and methodological preferences. The conferences take place in Europe, but the EUROSLA network extends throughout the world.

EDiLiC:Education et Diversité Linguistique et Culturelle
Website in French and English: www.edilic.org
EDiLiC international association was created in 2001 by partners of the Evlang program. It is open to anyone wishing to contribute to the promotion of the awakening to languages. This includes an integrated curriculum, involving other plural approaches of languages and cultures.

Last update: 2010-08-09

Glossary

Languages in/ for education – Sprachen (in) der Bildung

 

Example and reference
Beispiel und Quelle


Image LE

Michael Fleming: Languages of schooling within a European framework for languages of education: Learning, teaching, assessment. Intergovernmental Conference. Prague, 8-10 November 2007. Report. Strasbourg 2008.


Grafik SB

Michael Fleming: Languages of schooling within a European framework for languages of education: Learning, teaching, assessment. Intergovernmental Conference. Prague, 8-10 November 2007. Report. Strasbourg 2008.

Definition
Definition
All languages/ language varieties present in school: mother tongue(s)/native/ home languages, regional/migrant/minority languages, second/ majority languages and foreign languages. This term does not only refer to "taught" varieties or "Bildungssprachen", but also to all of the languages that pupils bring to school, even if they are not part of the curriculum.
Alle Sprachen bzw. Sprachvarietäten, die in der Schule vorkommen: Mutter-/Herkunftssprachen, Regional-/MigrantInnen-/ Minderheitssprachen, Zweit-/ Mehrheitssprachen und Fremdsprachen. Dieser Terminus bezieht sich also nicht nur auf "Bildungssprachen", sondern eben auch auf "mitgebrachte Sprachen" der SchülerInnen, auch wenn sie im Schulcurriculum keinen Platz finden.
Comment
Kommentar
The image (link above) illustrates the contents of the concept.

FR: Langue(s) de l‘éducation -  (LE)

Die Grafik (siehe Verknüpfung oben) illustriert die Inhalte des Konzepts.
 

 

National language(s)/ official language(s) - Nationalsprachen/ Amtssprachen

 

Example and reference
 Beispiel und Quelle

„Receiving newly arrived migrants involves setting up language education structures for them and their children, in the absence of which the acquisition of the national or official language will take place spontaneously only with respect to oral forms.  This would lead to later handicaps as a result of inability to write the language. (…) The need to maintain the stability of official languages leads dominant social groups and the state apparatus to set norms which are disseminated by education systems, in particular by the teaching of the so-called mother tongue and the teaching of other subjects in that language“ ( Language Policy Division (2007), Guide for the development of  language education policies in europe - from linguistic diversity to plurilingual education. Main Version.  Council of Europe. Strasbourg, 21. Download here. (Access date: March 30, 2009).

 „Zum Empfang neu eingereister Zuwanderer gehört es, Strukturen für ihre und die Sprachen-(aus)bildung ihrer Kinder zu schaffen. Wenn es solche Strukturen nicht gibt, wird der Erwerb der National- oder Amtssprache von selbst nur im Bereich des mündlichen Gebrauchs erfolgen. Das wird als Folge der fehlenden Schreibfertigkeit später Beeinträchtigungen hervorrufen. (…) Der Bedarf, der Amtssprache Stabilität zu verleihen, führt dazu, dass dominante soziale Gruppen und der Staatsapparat Normen festsetzen, die durch die Bildungssysteme verbreitet werden, vor allem durch den Unterricht der so genannten Muttersprache und den Unterricht anderer Fächer in dieser Sprache“  ( Language Policy Division (2007), Guide for the development of  language education policies in europe - from linguistic diversity to plurilingual education. Main Version. Council of Europe. Strasbourg, 21. Hier herunterladen. (Zugriff: 30. März 2009, Übersetzung: K.-B. Boeckmann).

Definition
Definition

„A linguistic variety which has the role, sanctioned by the Constitution or other legal instruments, of language of communication between state and citizens (government departments, the judicial system, schools, etc). (…) In national states (...), the official language may become a factor of identity, i.e. of belonging to a national community. (…) The term national language is, therefore, far more emotionally charged than official language“ (Beacco & Byram 2003, 52).

 „Eine linguistische Varietät die, durch die Verfassung oder andere gesetzliche Instrumentarien legitimiert,  die Rolle spielt, als Kommunikationssprache zwischen Staat und Bürgern (in Regierungsstellen, im Rechtssystem, in Schulen etc.) zu dienen. In Nationalstaaten (…) kann die Amtssprache ein Faktor der Identität, d.h. des Zugehörigkeitsgefühls zu einer nationalen Gemeinschaft, werden. (…) Der Terminus Nationalsprache ist daher wesentlich stärker emotional geladen als Amtssprache“ (Beacco & Byram 2003, 52, Übersetzung: K.-B. Boeckmann).

Comment
Kommentar

„This supposes that in private communication citizens may use any linguistic varieties“ (…)

„National language does not (…) coincide with citizenship (...), even if some knowledge of the official variety is expected or required of those applying for citizenship“ (Beacco & Byram 2003, 52). 

 „Das impliziert, dass die Bürger in privater Kommunikation jede linguistische Varietät benutzen dürfen“ (…)

„Nationalsprache geht nicht mit Staatsbürgerschaft einher (…), auch wenn bei der Bewerbung für die Staatsangehörigkeit eine gewisse Kenntnis der amtlichen Varietät erwartet oder obligatorisch verlangt wird“ (Beacco & Byram 2003, 52, Übersetzung: K.-B. Boeckmann). 

 

 

Language(s) of instruction – Unterrichtssprache(n)

 

Example and reference
Beispiel und Referenz
 „There are (…) many programmes in which the official language is used as the language of instruction: in situations in which learners who are speakers of a minority language are, as it were, immersed in the official school language, their first language will, if it is not in use in the community, tend to die out (…) or, conversely, acquisition of the linguistic variety used in the host country (...) will not lead to the loss of the first language“ ( Language Policy Division (2003), Guide for the development of  language education policies in europe - from linguistic diversity to plurilingual education. Main Version, Council of Europe. Strasbourg, 56. Download here. (Access date: March 30, 2009).
„Es gibt (…) viele Programme in denen die Amtssprache als Unterrichtssprache benützt wird: in Situationen, in denen Lernende, die eine Minderheitensprache sprechen, sozusagen in die amtliche Schulsprache eingetaucht werden, wird ihre Erstsprache, wenn sie in der Gemeinschaft nicht gebraucht wird, zum Aussterben tendieren (…) oder im gegenteiligen Fall führt der Erwerb der Sprachvarietät, die im Aufnahmeland gesprochen wird (…), nicht zum Verlust der Erstsprache“  (Language Policy Division (2003), Guide for the development of  language education policies in europe - from linguistic diversity to plurilingual education. Main Version.  Council of Europe. Strasbourg, 56. Hier herunterladen. (Zugriff: 30. März 2009, Übersetzung: K.-B. Boeckmann)
Definition
Definition
 „In order to teach subjects other than the language itself, schools use a linguistic variety which is generally the (or one of the) official language(s).  Educational mechanisms have been developed for the children of migrants (whose first language is not the language used in schools) in which the children’s mother tongue plays this role to make things easier for them, although some families may see this as an obstacle to their integration in the host country“ (Beacco & Byram 2003, 56).
  „Um andere Gegenstände als die Sprache selbst zu unterrichten, benützen Schulen eine linguistische Varietät, die in der Regel die (oder eine der) Amtsprachen(n) ist. Für Migrantenkinder (deren Erstsprache nicht die Sprache ist, die in der Schule verwendet wird, wurden Angebote entwickelt, in denen die Muttersprache diese Rolle übernimmt, um ihnen die Dinge zu erleichtern, obwohl einige Familien dies als Hindernis für ihre Integration im Aufnahmeland ansehen können“ (Beacco & Byram 2003, 56, Übersetzung: K.-B. Boeckmann).
Comment
Kommentar
The language of instruction is often identical to “the so-called mother tongue“ [=> national language(s), official language(s)] which often may well be the mother tongue of a majority of children in the country [=>majority language(s)], though not necessarily in the individual school or classroom. The provision of mother tongue instruction (i.e. mother tongue as a subject) for those who do not belong to this majority is by no means guaranteed in all countries. Normally there is even less provision of instruction through the mother tongue for minority language speakers, i.e. teaching of other subjects via the medium of the mother tongue. So the definition seems a bit optimistic, especially with regard to „migrants“ as opposed to autochthonous minority groups.
In addition to this, there are schools with a profile for foreign languages, where the language of instruction differs from the => national language(s), official language(s) of the country according to the method of language immersion to support the second/ foreign language competences of their students. These immersion programmes teach regular school subjects through a second/ foreign language as medium of instruction to a majority population. The use of the term “immerse” in connection with minority students (as in the example) can therefore be misleading.
The term „migrants“ which is used in the quotes above is problematic because it carries the notion of „not belonging“ and can be offensive to groups using other languages than the majority population.

 Die Unterrichtssprache ist oft identisch mit der „sogenannten Muttersprache“ [=> Nationalsprache(n), Amtssprache(n)], die zwar oft die Muttersprache einer Mehrheit der Kinder im Land ist [=> Mehrheitssprache(n)], aber nicht unbedingt in der einzelnen Schule oder Klassenzimmer. Das Angebot von Muttersprachunterricht (d.h. Muttersprache als Unterrichtsgegenstand) für diejenigen, die nicht zu dieser Mehrheit zählen, ist keinesfalls in allen Ländern garantiert. Normalerweise gibt es noch weniger Angebot an Unterricht mittels der  Muttersprache für Kinder, die Minderheitensprachen sprechen, d.h. Lehre anderer Gegenstände durch das Medium der Muttersprache. Die Definition scheint also etwas optimistisch, vor allem in Hinblick auf „Migrant/inn/en“ im Gegensatz zu autochthonen Minderheiten.

Zusätzlich gibt es Schulen mit einem Fremdsprachenprofil, in denen die Unterrichtssprache eine andere ist als die => Nationalsprache(n), Amtssprache(n) des Landes und die Methode der Immersion angewendet wird um die Zweit-/ Fremdsprachkompetenzen der Studierenden zu fördern. Diese Immersionsprogramme unterrichten die regulären Unterrichtsfächer in einer Zweit-/ Fremdsprache als Unterrichtsmedium für eine Mehrheit. Die Verwendung des englischen Worts „immerse“ im Zusammenhang mit Schüler/inne/n aus sprachlichen Minderheiten (wie im englischen Originalzitat im Beispiel) kann daher irreführend sein.
Der Terminus „Migrant/inn/en“, der in den obigen Zitaten verwendet wird, ist problematisch, weil er das „Nicht-Dazugehören“ betont und daher bei Gruppen, die eine andere Sprachen als die Mehrheitsbevölkerung benutzen, Anstoß erregen kann.

 

 

Majority language(s) - Mehrheitssprache(n)

 

Example and reference
Beispiel und Referenz

 „The severity of the recognition problems (…) minorities give rise to depends on such characteristics as:
•    their demographic weight in relation to the national entity in which they are present and their degree of geographic concentration (dispersion among the majority group or concentration in certain places where its members form the majority)
•    (…)
•    the status of their linguistic variety and its “degree” of acceptance by speakers of the majority language: if it is regarded as very “exotic” (...) or very “minor”, the feeling of foreignness will be more acute“
( Language Policy Division (2003), Guide for the development of  language education policies in europe - from linguistic diversity to plurilingual education. Main Version. Council of Europe. Strasbourg, 18. Download here. Access date: March 30, 2009).

 „Die Schwere der Anerkennungsprobleme (…) die Minderheiten aufwerfen, hängt von Charakteristika ab wie:
•    ihrem demografischen Gewicht im Verhältnis zur nationalen Entität, in der sie sich aufhalten und ihr Grad der geografischen Konzentration (verstreut zwischen der Mehrheitsgruppe oder konzentriert, so dass ihre Mitglieder an bestimmten Plätzen die Mehrheit bilden)
•     (…)
•    der Status ihrer linguistischen Varietät und der ‚Grad‘ ihrer Akzeptanz durch Sprecher/inn/en der Mehrheitssprache: wenn sie als sehr ‚exotisch‘ (…) oder sehr ‚klein‘ angesehen wird, wird die Fremdheitsempfindung intensiver sein“
( Language Policy Division (2003), Guide for the development of  language education policies in europe - from linguistic diversity to plurilingual education. Main Version. Council of Europe. Strasbourg, 18. Hier herunterladen. Zugriff: 30. März 2009, Übersetzung: K.-B. Boeckmann).
Definition
Definition
The first language(s) of the majority of the population in (a defined region of) a country - in many cases this/ these will also be the => national/ official language(s) of the state and the =>language(s) of instruction in schools
 Die Erstsprache(n) der Mehrheit der Bevölkerung  (einer definierten Region) in einem Land - vielfach wird/ werden diese auch die =>National-/Amtssprache(n) des Staats und die =>Unterrichtssprache(n) in den Schulen sein
Comment
Kommentar
The special role of the majority language is due to the combination of several features that increase the societal importance of the language in such a way that nobody living in this society can manage without it, even if it is not his/her first language.
It should be noted that minorities form local majorities in many cases: these can either be formed by several minorities  in combination or by one single very concentrated minority.

 Entscheidend für die besondere Rolle der Mehrheitssprache ist die Kopplung verschiedener Merkmale, die die gesellschaftliche Bedeutung dieser Sprache so heben, dass niemand, der in dieser Gesellschaft lebt, ohne diese Sprache auskommt, auch wenn sie nicht ihre/seine Erstsprache ist.
Es sollte beachtet werden, dass Minderheiten in vielen Fällen lokale Mehrheiten bilden: entweder  können diese aus verschiedenen Minderheiten gemeinsam oder aus einer einzelnen sehr konzentrierten Minderheit gebildet werden.
 

 

Language(s) of origin - Herkunftssprache(n)

 

Example and reference Beispiel und Referenz

 “But this also raises the question of recognising the mother tongues of the migrants’ children in a manner comparable to those of established national minorities. These languages are likely to be lost and, by the third or fourth generation, to be merely a heritage language. ‘Ethnic mobilisation’ around cultural identities does not necessarily focus on the transmission of original languages.”  ( Language Policy Division (2007), Guide for the development of  language education policies in Europe - from linguistic diversity to plurilingual education. Main Version. Council of Europe. Strasbourg, 23. Download here. Access date: June 18, 2009)

“[…] language varieties of the countries of origin are often learnt as a first language (L1) in the process of primary socialization, and they are used for in-group communication.” (Extra, Guus & Verhoeven, Ludo. (1999), Bilingualism and migration. Mouton de Gruyter. Berlin [u.a.], 14).
 

"More typical are those families in which the language of origin takes the bulk of communication while alongside the usage of German language is also applied in some scale, whereas generally the migrants’ children tend to a more comprehensive use of German language [note: Ex. for Germany]. […] It means for small children growing up in family in many cases the language of origin is taken as basis of their language development" (Ehlich, Konrad. (2005), Anforderungen an Verfahren der regelmäßigen Sprachstandsfeststellung als Grundlage für die frühe und individuelle Förderung von Kindern mit und ohne Migrationshintergrund. Bundesministerium für  Bildung und Forschung. Bonn [u.a.], 131). [Translation by Franziska Plathner]
 Dies wirft ebenfalls die Frage nach der Anerkennung der Muttersprachen von Migrantenkindern auf, die auf eine Art vergleichbar ist mit der Anerkennung von etablierten nationalen Minderheiten. Diese Sprachen gehen vielleicht verloren und sind in der dritten oder vierten Generation lediglich noch ererbte Sprachen. ‚Ethnic mobilization‘ rund um das Thema kulturelle Identitäten muss nicht zwangsläufig auf die Vermittlung von Herkunftssprachen ausgerichtet sein. (Language Policy Division (2007), Guide for the development of  language education policies in Europe - from linguistic diversity to plurilingual education. Main Version. Council of Europe, 23. Strasbourg. Hier herunterladen. Zugriff: 18. Juni 2009). [Übersetzung ins Deutsche von Franziska Plathner].

[…] Sprachvarietäten des Herkunftslandes werden oft als Erstsprache (L1) im Prozess der primären Sozialisation erlernt und sie werden als Gruppensprache benutzt. (Extra, Guus & Verhoeven, Ludo. (1999), Bilingualism and migration. Mouton de Gruyter. Berlin [u.a.], 14).  [Übersetzung ins Deutsche von Franziska Plathner]

„Typisch sind eher Familien, in denen die Herkunftssprache den größten Anteil an der Kommunikation hat, die deutsche Sprache aber daneben in einem gewissen Umfang verwendet wird, wobei die Kinder in der Regel zu einem etwas umfänglicheren Deutschgebrauch tendieren [Anm: Bsp. aus Deutschland]. […]Für kleine Kinder, die in der Familie aufwachsen, bedeutet dies, dass die Herkunftssprache vielfach als Grundlage ihrer sprachlichen Entwicklung anzusehen ist.“  (Ehlich, Konrad. (2005), Anforderungen an Verfahren der regelmäßigen Sprachstandsfeststellung als Grundlage für die frühe und individuelle Förderung von Kindern mit und ohne Migrationshintergrund. Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung. Bonn [u.a.], 131).
 
Definition
Definition
 “Language of origin: language variety, often the first language, of persons or groups who have moved to live in other States. These speakers must adapt linguistically to the new environment and learn, at least partially, the language (or languages) of the host country.” (Language Policy Division (2007), Guide for the development of  language education policies in Europe - from linguistic diversity to plurilingual education. Main Version. Council of Europe. Strasbourg, 115. Download here. Access date: June 18, 2009).
 Herkunftssprache: Sprachvarietät, vielfach die Erstsprache, von Personen oder Gruppen, die migrieren, um in einem anderen Staat zu leben. Sie müssen sich sprachlich an ihre neue Umgebung anpassen und sie müssen, zumindest teilweise, die Sprache oder die Sprachen des Aufnahmelandes erlernen. (Language Policy Division (2007), Guide for the development of  language education policies in Europe - from linguistic diversity to plurilingual education. Main Version. Council of Europe. Strasbourg, 115. Hier herunterladen. Zugriff: 18. Juni 2009). [Übersetzung ins Deutsche von Franziska Plathner].
Comment
Kommentar
 The language of origin is the individual => first language [or mother-tongue] of people who reside in a host country with a different language from the language or language variety of their home country. The term is mainly used in connection with processes of migration due to the fact that it expresses  the spatial, cultural and linguistic distance between the place of origin and the receiving country. The acquisition of the language of origin for migrants takes place directly in their country of origin. The Language of origin basically contributes to the signalling of group identity (Extra/Verhoeven, 1999, 9).  For the next generations the Language of origin will be transmitted in the country of immigration within the family (so called “intergenerational transmission”  after Brizić, 2007, 197). Therefore language of origin mostly occupies the domain of family or group language in contrast to the language of the host country as the language of education or the language of environment. Especially as far as the second generation we can use the term family- or parental language, or heritage language, precisely because the language of origin is the language used by immigrant family members of the speakers; however, it does not  reveal anything about the real birthplace of the following generation.
Other terms used in a similar or partly synonymous sense for language of origin are: family- or parental language, immigrant language, immigrant-family-language, source language, native language, mother-tongue, first language. Like the words heritage language (in terms of language of familiar and cultural heritage) or home language (in terms of language of homeland and used language at home) these terms are not the same as the term language of origin, but bring with them a range of diverse connotations or underline different aspects of meaning.
 
Sources: Brizić, Katharina (2007): Das geheime Leben der Sprachen. Gesprochene und verschwiegene Sprachen und ihr Einfluss auf den Spracherwerb in der Migration. Münster [u.a.]: Waxmann; Extra, Guus & Verhoeven, Ludo (1999): Bilingualism and migration. Berlin [u.a]: Mouton de Gruyter.
[Comment by Franziska Plathner]

 Die Herkunftssprache wird als die individuelle => Erstsprache [oder Muttersprache ] von Menschen bezeichnet, die sich in einer Aufnahmegesellschaft mit einer von der Sprache/ Sprachvarietät  ihres Herkunftslandes differierenden Sprache befinden. Der Terminus wird vor allem in Zusammenhang mit Migrationsprozessen verwendet, da er der räumlichen, kulturellen und sprachlichen Distanz zwischen Herkunfts- und der neuen Umgebungssprache Ausdruck verleiht. Die Herkunftssprache trägt wesentlich zur Signalisierung von Gruppenidentität bei (Extra/Verhoeven, 1999, 9). Der Erwerb der  Herkunftssprache findet bei MigrantInnen vor der Emigration direkt  im Herkunftsland statt. In den nachfolgenden Generationen wird die Herkunftssprache im Immigrationsland  innerhalb der Familie an die Kinder weitergegeben (sog. „intergenerationale Transmission“ nach Brizić, 2007, 197). Sie hat daher häufig die Domäne einer Familiensprache oder Gruppensprache inne, im Gegensatz zur Zielsprache des Immigrationslandes als Bildungs- und Umgebungssprache (Extra/ Verhoeven, 1999, 9f). Besonders ab der zweiten Generation ist eher von einer Familien- oder Elternsprache zu sprechen, da sie für diese SprecherInnen zwar die Sprache des Herkunftslandes von immigrierten Familienmitgliedern ist, aber sie über die eigentliche Herkunft oder den Geburtsort der Folgegeneration nichts mehr aussagt.
Weitere Termini, die im Deutschen in einer ähnlichen, z.T. synonymen, Bedeutung zu Herkunftssprache verwendet werden, sind: Familiensprache, Elternsprache, Migrantensprache, Erstsprache oder Muttersprache. Ebenso wie die englischen Begriffe heritage language (im Sinne der Sprache als familiärem und kulturellem Erbe) und home language (im Sinne der Sprache der Heimat oder auch des familiären Zuhauses) haben all diese Begriffe allerdings nicht exakt dieselbe Bedeutung wie der Terminus Herkunftssprache, sondern transportieren jeweils unterschiedliche Konnotationen bzw. unterstreichen unterschiedliche inhaltliche Aspekte.
Quellen: Brizić, Katharina (2007): Das geheime Leben der Sprachen. Gesprochene und verschwiegene Sprachen und ihr Einfluss auf den Spracherwerb in der Migration. Münster [u.a.]: Waxmann; Extra, Guus & Verhoeven, Ludo (1999): Bilingualism and migration. Berlin [u.a]: Mouton de Gruyter.
[Kommentar erstellt von Franziska Plathner]
 

 

First language(s) - Erstsprache(n)

 

Example and reference
Beispiel und Referenz

“First language is the term of academic origin used to refer to what is generally understood by the term mother tongue. […] Mother tongue is the corresponding everyday term which, however, has affective connotations such as family and origin that are not present in the term first language. Furthermore, it is not always correct since children do not acquire their first language only from their mothers and they may acquire several first languages (two or more) simultaneously in multilingual family environments. Native language and heritage language are other terms used in this sense and they also have similar associations with a group to which one belongs, with which one identifies. It will be noted that the linguistic variety in which one may define one’s belonging to a group is not necessarily the first language, but may be a variety acquired later on.” (Language Policy Division (2007), Guide for the development of  language education policies in Europe - from linguistic diversity to plurilingual education. Main Version. Council of Europe. Strasbourg, 51).

“It may also be the one through which the child begins to discover and appropriate the rules of language and, at the same time, the rules of linguistic behaviour (for example, who, how and when to greet).” (Language Policy Division  (2007), Guide for the development of  language education policies in Europe - from linguistic diversity to plurilingual education. Main Version. Council of Europe. Strasbourg, 51).

[First language is] the primary acquired language of a child. This term presupposes potential multilingualism, which means a specification of one of several (possibly later to be acquired) languages as the first learned language or a significant language in a person’s linguistic biography. (Glück, Helmut (Hrsg.). (2000), Metzler Lexikon Sprache. 2. erweiterte Auflage. Stuttgart/Weimar, 192). [Translation by Franziska Plathner]

“The first languages of people or of groups that have been obliged to settle in other countries are another type of minority language.”  (Language Policy Division (2007), Guide for the development of  language education policies in Europe - from linguistic diversity to plurilingual education. Main Version. Council of Europe. Strasbourg, 56).
 

Erstsprache ist der Terminus akademischen Ursprungs, der benutzt wird, um das zu benennen, was man gemeinhin unter dem Begriff Muttersprache versteht. […] Muttersprache lautet der entsprechende umgangssprachliche Terminus, welcher allerdings affektive Konnotationen, wie zum Beispiel Familie oder Herkunft, aufweist, die bei dem Terminus Erstsprache nicht vorhanden sind. Darüber hinaus ist er nicht immer korrekt, da Kinder ihre Erstsprache nicht nur von ihren Müttern erwerben und sie in einem mehrsprachigen familiären Umfeld auch mehrere Erstsprachen (zwei oder mehr) simultan erwerben können. ‚Native language‘ oder ‚heritage language‘ sind andere Termini, welche in diesem Sinne gebraucht werden und sie erwecken ähnliche Assoziationen von der Zugehörigkeit oder Identifizierung mit einer Gruppe. Es wurde festgestellt, dass diejenige Sprachvarietät, über die jemand seine Zugehörigkeit zu einer Gruppe definiert, nicht unbedingt die Erstsprache ist, sondern auch eine später erworbene Varietät sein kann. (Language Policy Division  (2007), Guide for the development of  language education policies in Europe - from linguistic diversity to plurilingual education. Main Version. Council of Europe. Strasbourg, 51). [Übersetzung ins Deutsche von Franziska Plathner]

Es kann auch diejenige Sprache sein, durch die das Kind beginnt die Regeln von Sprache und gleichzeitig auch die Regeln von Sprachverhalten (z.B. Wer grüßt wann auf welche Art?) zu entdecken und sich anzueignen. (Language Policy Division  (2007), Guide for the development of  language education policies in Europe - from linguistic diversity to plurilingual education. Main Version. Council of Europe. Strasbourg, 51). [Übersetzung ins Deutsche von Franziska Plathner]

„[Erstsprache ist] Die erste Spr., die ein Kind erwirbt. Dieser Begriff setzt potentielle Mehrsprachigkeit voraus, d.h. die Spezifizierung einer aus mehreren (möglicherweise später zu erwerbenden) Spr. als die zuerst gelernte oder in der ‚Sprachbiographie‘ eines Menschen bedeutsame Spr.“ (Glück, Helmut (Hrsg.). (2000), Metzler Lexikon Sprache. 2. erweiterte Auflage. Stuttgart/Weimar, 192).

Die Erstsprachen von Gemeinschaftsmitgliedern, die dazu gezwungen sind, sich in anderen Ländern niederzulassen, stellen eine andere Art von Minderheitensprachen dar (Language Policy Division (2007), Guide for the development of  language education policies in Europe - from linguistic diversity to plurilingual education. Main Version. Council of Europe. Strasbourg, 56-57). [Übersetzung ins Deutsche von Franziska Plathner]
Definition
Definition
“First language: language variety(ies) acquired in early childhood (approximately before the age of two or three years) in which the human language faculty was first acquired. This term is preferred to mother tongue, which is often inaccurate as the first language is not necessarily that of the mother alone” (Language Policy Division (2007), Guide for the development of  language education policies in Europe - from linguistic diversity to plurilingual education. Main Version. Council of Europe. Strasbourg, 114).
"Erstsprache: Sprachvarietät(en), welche in der frühen Kindheit (bis zu einem Alter von zwei bis drei Jahren) erworben worden ist/sind, in der sich das menschliche Sprachvermögen erstmalig in einer natürlichen Sprache fest begründet. Dieser Begriff wird gegenüber  dem Begriff Muttersprache bevorzugt, der häufig insofern ungenau ist, als dass die Erstsprache nicht unbedingt nur die der Mutter ist" (Language Policy Division (2007), Guide for the development of  language education policies in Europe - from linguistic diversity to plurilingual education. Main Version. Council of Europe. Strasbourg, 114). [Übersetzung ins Deutsche von Franziska Plathner]
Comment
Kommentar

“The first languages of migrants have many origins: some are other European languages that may allow a degree of mutual understanding with the official varieties of certain countries and are themselves official or regional varieties. Others are from outside Europe, but familiar because of colonial history which provided some contact, or, conversely, are perceived as very different. These, in their turn, are the languages of countries or large cultural groupings or minority languages in the countries of origin. (Language Policy Division (2007), Guide for the development of  language education policies in Europe - from linguistic diversity to plurilingual education. Main Version. Council of Europe. Strasbourg, 57)

“The family strategies for transmission of the first language of such communities can vary greatly and may be explicit or implicit: using the language systematically in private communication, regular visits to the country of origin, classes provided by an association or in host education systems. For others, pressure from the surrounding community and the wish to facilitate integration in the host country lead them avoiding the first variety. However, this abandonment of the heritage language may be experienced as a loss of identity by succeeding generations, who then try to re-appropriate the linguistic variety they ought to have inherited.” (Language Policy Division (2007), Guide for the development of  language education policies in Europe - from linguistic diversity to plurilingual education. Main Version. Council of Europe. Strasbourg, 56).

 Die Erstsprachen von Migranten haben viele Ursprünge: einige sind ebenfalls europäische Sprachen, die bis zu einem gewissen Grad beiderseitiges Verständnis mit den offiziellen Sprachen bestimmter Länder zulassen und sind selbst offizielle oder regionale Varietäten. Andere sind außereuropäische Sprachen, die entweder Ähnlichkeiten aufweisen durch die  koloniale Vergangenheit, die zu sprachlichem Kontakt führte, oder  die im Gegenteil als sehr andersartig wahrgenommen werden. Diese sind wiederum Sprachen von Ländern bzw. großen Kulturgemeinschaften oder es sind Minderheitensprachen in den Herkunftsländern. (Language Policy Division (2007), Guide for the development of  language education policies in Europe - from linguistic diversity to plurilingual education. Main Version.  Council of Europe. Strasbourg, 56-57). [Übersetzung ins Deutsche von Franziska Plathner]

Familienstrategien zum Erhalt der Erstsprache solcher Gemeinschaften variieren stark und können expliziter oder impliziter Natur sein: systematischer Gebrauch der Sprache in der privaten Kommunikation, regelmäßige Besuche des Herkunftslandes, von Vereinen oder vom Bildungssystem des Aufnahmelandes ausgerichtete Kurse. Andere bringt der Druck der umgebenden Gemeinschaft und der Wunsch, Integration zu ermöglichen, dazu, die Erstvarietät zu meiden. Dennoch, dieses Aufgeben der Herkunftssprache kann von folgenden Generationen als Verlust der Identität erfahren werden, die dann versuchen, sich die linguistische Varietät wieder anzueignen, die sie hätten familiär übernehmen sollen. (Language Policy Division (2007), Guide for the development of  language education policies in Europe - from linguistic diversity to plurilingual education. Main Version. Council of Europe. Strasbourg, 56). [Übersetzung ins Deutsche von Franziska Plathner]
 

 

Plurilingual education – Plurilinguale Bildung

 

Example and reference
Beispiel und Referenz

“The plurilingual perspective may provide some answers to such problems: it recognises and accepts the diversity of all speakers; a principle of plurilingual education is that the management of plurilingual repertoires and their development should be differentiated: [...]Techniques are available for establishing ways of teaching linguistic varieties which are not a matter of exclusive choices, but can be modulated (over time, for example) and are therefore negotiable. From this point of view, plurilingual education can enable both majorities and minorities to have a better understanding of the nature of their relationships and of their own aspirations.” (Language Policy Division (2007), Guide for the development of  language education policies in Europe - from linguistic diversity to plurilingual education. Main Version. Council of Europe. Strasbourg, 71).

“It is posited that the purpose of plurilingual education is to develop speakers’ language skills and linguistic repertoires.” (Language Policy Division (2007), Guide for the development of  language education policies in Europe - from linguistic diversity to plurilingual education. Main Version. Council of Europe. Strasbourg, 12).

“Plurilingual education will refer to all activities, curricular or extra-curricular of whatever nature, which seek to enhance and develop language competence and speakers’ individual linguistic repertoires, from the earliest schooldays and throughout life. Education for plurilingualism will refer to plurilingual education (for example, teaching national, foreign, regional languages), in which the purpose is to develop plurilingualism as a competence. It will be noted that plurilingual education may also be achieved through activities designed principally to raise awareness of linguistic diversity, but which do not aim to teach such languages, and therefore do not constitute language teaching in the strict sense.” (Language Policy Division (2007), Guide for the development of  language education policies in Europe - from linguistic diversity to plurilingual education. Main Version. Council of Europe. Strasbourg, 18).

Die plurilinguale Perspektive kann einige Antworten auf manche Probleme bieten: sie versteht und akzeptiert die Vielfalt aller Sprecher; ein Grundsatz plurilingualer Bildung ist es, dass die Handhabungen von mehrsprachigen Repertoires und deren Entwicklung differenziert werden sollten. Es sind Techniken zur Vermittlung sprachlicher Varietäten verfügbar, bei denen es sich nicht um exklusive Angebote handelt, sondern die (beispielsweise zeitlich) angepasst werden können und daher übertragbar sind. Von diesem Standpunkt aus kann es plurilinguale Bildung beiden, Mehrheiten und Minderheiten, ermöglichen ein besseres Verständnis für die Beschaffenheit ihrer Beziehungen und ihrer eigenen Ziele zu haben. (Language Policy Division (2007), Guide for the development of  language education policies in Europe - from linguistic diversity to plurilingual education. Main Version. Council of Europe. Strasbourg, 71). [Übersetzung ins Deutsche von Franziska Plathner]

Es wird der Anspruch gestellt, dass es der Zweck plurilingualer Bildung ist, die Sprachfähigkeiten und sprachlichen Repertoires von Sprechern auszubilden. (Language Policy Division (2007), Guide for the development of  language education policies in Europe - from linguistic diversity to plurilingual education. Main Version. Council of Europe. Strasbourg, 12). [Übersetzung ins Deutsche von Franziska Plathner]

Plurilinguale Bildung bezieht sich auf alle Tätigkeiten, curriculare oder außercurriculare jeglicher Art, die es anstreben die Sprachkompetenz und das individuelle Sprachrepertoire eines Sprechers zu fördern und weiterzuentwickeln, von den ersten Schultagen an über das ganze Leben hinweg. Bildung für Plurilingualismus bezieht sich auf plurilinguale Bildung (z.B. Unterricht von National-, Fremd- und Regionalsprachen), welche beabsichtigen Mehrsprachigkeitskompetenz zu entwickeln. Es wurde festgestellt, dass plurilinguale Bildung auch durch Aktivitäten erreicht werden kann, die prinzipiell für die Steigerung des Bewusstseins für Sprachenvielfalt entwickelt wurden, die aber nicht auf das Unterrichten dieser Sprachen abzielen, und die daher keinen Sprachunterricht im eigentlichen Sinne darstellen. (Language Policy Division (2007), Guide for the development of  language education policies in Europe - from linguistic diversity to plurilingual education. Main Version. Council of Europe. Strasbourg, 18). [Übersetzung ins Deutsche von Franziska Plathner]
Definition
Definition
 “Plurilingual education: manner of teaching, not necessarily restricted to language teaching, which aims to raise awareness of each individual’s language repertoire, to emphasise its worth and to extend this repertoire by teaching lesser used or unfamiliar languages. Plurilingual education also aims to increase understanding of the social and cultural value of linguistic diversity in order to ensure linguistic goodwill and to develop intercultural competence [...].” (Language Policy Division (2007), Guide for the development of  language education policies in Europe - from linguistic diversity to plurilingual education. Main Version. Council of Europe. Strasbourg, 116)
Plurilinguale Bildung: Art des Unterrichts, nicht unbedingt auf Sprachunterricht beschränkt, dessen Ziel es ist, das Bewusstsein für das jeweils individuelle Sprachrepertoire zu steigern, dessen Wert zu unterstreichen und dieses Repertoire zu erweitern durch das Unterrichten in weniger verbreiteten oder nicht vertrauten Sprachen. Plurilinguale Bildung zielt außerdem auf das wachsende Verständnis für den sozialen und kulturellen Wert von Sprachenvielfalt ab um sprachliches ‚goodwill’ zu garantieren und  interkulturelle Kompetenzen aufzubauen. (Language Policy Division (2007), Guide for the development of  language education policies in Europe - from linguistic diversity to plurilingual education. Main Version. Council of Europe. Strasbourg, 116). [Übersetzung ins Deutsche von Franziska Plathner]
Comment
Kommentar
 Plurilingual education literally means the use of two or more languages in curricular contexts (Freeman, 1998, 2).
According to Hornberger (1991), one model of plurilingual education is the ‘enrichment model’. Such programmes aspire to a general encouragement of minority languages, language awareness and additive plurilingualism not only for immigrant but also for indigenous schoolchildren. In enrichment model programmes all languages that are different from the national language(s) will be seen as resources which make a contribution to pluralism in education and society. This model of plurilingual education follows the pedagogical approach of inclusion. Inclusive pedagogy matches the instructional conditions to the needs and special features of the pupils and has the aim of valuing diversity and welcoming heterogeneity in education – and therefore the full acceptance of language diversity in school as well (Couillaud/Kahn, 1989).
Sources: Couillaud, Xavier  & Kahn, Verity Saifullah (1989): Das «Childrens’s Language Project». In Reich, Hans H. (Hg.): Migration – Bildungspolitik – Pädagogik. Essen/Landau: alfa; Freeman, Rebecca (1998): Bilingual education and social change. Clevedon [u.a.]: Multilingual Matters; Hornberger, Nancy (1991): Extending enrichment bilingual education: Revisiting typologies and redirecting policy. In García, Ofelia (Hg.), Bilingual Education: Focusschrift in Honor of Joshua A. Fishman on the Occasion of his 65th Birthday, 215-234. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishers.
[Comment by Franziska Plathner]    
 
Plurilinguale Bildung meint im eigentlichen Sinne die Verwendung zweier oder mehrerer Sprachen im curricularen Kontext (Freeman, 1998, 2).

Nach Hornberger (1991) ist ein Modell plurilingualer Bildung das Bereicherungsmodell. Die Programme des Bereicherungsmodells streben eine allgemeine Förderung von Minderheitensprachen, Sprachbewusstsein und additivem Plurilingualismus nicht nur bei SprecherInnen der Minderheitensprache, sondern auch bei SprecherInnen der Mehrheits¬sprache an. Die von der/den offiziellen Landessprache(n) abweichenden Sprachen werden bei diesem Modelltyp als Ressourcen gesehen, die zum Pluralismus in der Schule und Gesellschaft beitragen. Dieses Modell plurilingualer Bildung verfolgt den pädagogischen Ansatz der Inklusion (oder Inklusive Pädagogik), deren Ziel die Wertschätzung von Diversität und die Akzeptanz von Heterogenität in der Bildung und Erziehung ist und bei der sich der Unterricht an den Bedürfnissen und Besonderheiten seiner SchülerInnen orientiert (Couillaud/Kahn, 1989). Damit einher geht die volle Akzeptanz der Sprachenvielfalt in der Schule.

Quellen: Couillaud, Xavier  & Kahn, Verity Saifullah (1989): Das «Childrens’s Language Project». In Reich, Hans H. (Hg.): Migration – Bildungspolitik – Pädagogik. Essen/Landau: alfa; Freeman, Rebecca (1998): Bilingual education and social change. Clevedon [u.a.]: Multilingual Matters; Hornberger, Nancy (1991): Extending enrichment bilingual education: Revisiting typologies and redirecting policy. In García, Ofelia (Hg.), Bilingual Education: Focusschrift in Honor of Joshua A. Fishman on the Occasion of his 65th Birthday, 215-234. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishers.
[Kommentar erstellt von Franziska Plathner]
 

 

Language awareness - Sprachbewusstheit

 

Example and reference
Beispiel und Referenz
“Twenty-five years ago, in the UK, the different kinds of language teacher (of foreign languages, of English mother tongue, English as a second language, ethnic minority languages and the classics) remained sealed off from each other, in schools, universities and training colleges. Teachers of these subjects never went into each other’s classrooms to hear what their colleagues were saying about language. They had not even tried to agree a common vocabulary in which to talk about language. In the years that have elapsed, little has changed in this respect, though there have been isolated advances. Pomphrey and Moger (this issue) report on a pioneering project in the parallel training of foreign language and English teachers. Our ALA journal Language Awareness has been influential in promoting discussion of the issues. But the absence of collaboration still blocks the development of a coherent language apprenticeship in the schools” (Hawkins, 1999: 124).

Hawkins, E.W. (1999) Foreign Language Study and Language Awareness. Language Awareness 8 (3&4), 124-142.
 
 "Vor 25 Jahren waren in Großbritannien die unterschiedlichen Sprachlehrkräfte (für Fremdsprachen, Englisch als Erst- und Zweitsprache, ethnische Minderheitensprachen und klassische Sprachen) gänzlich getrennt voneinander, in Schulen, Universitäten und Hochschulen. Lehrkräfte dieser Gegenstände besuchten einander nie im Unterricht um zu hören, was ihre Kollegen über Sprache zu sagen hatten. Sie hatten nicht einmal versucht, sich auf ein gemeinsames Vokabular zu einigen, um über Sprache zu sprechen. In den Jahren seither hat sich wenig verändert, obwohl es einzelne Fortschritte gegeben hat. Pomprey und Moger (in dieser Ausgabe) berichten über ein Pionier-Projekt, in dem Lehrende für Fremdsprachen und für Englisch (als Erst- und Zweitsprache, Anm. des Übersetzers) parallel ausgebildet werden. Unsere ALA-Zeitschrift 'Language Awareness' hat Einfluss auf die Förderung dieser Themen genommen. Aber die Abwesenheit von Kooperation blockiert immer noch die Entwicklung einer kohärenten Sprachlernerfahrung in den Schulen (Hawkins 1999: 124).
 
Hawkins, E.W. (1999) Foreign Language Study and Language Awareness. Language Awareness 8 (3&4), 124-142. [Übersetzung ins Deutsche: K.-B. Boeckmann]
Definition
Definition
[Language awareness is] concerned with fostering communicative ability, increasing people’s knowledge and sensitivity about how language is used in a variety of contexts and environments, and raising levels of positive, informed tolerance. (…) It seeks to promote the ability, through education, not only to use language effectively but also to assess the use and abuse of language in the context of everyday life; it emphasises what is appropriate rather than what is perceived to be correct or incorrect"
(Harvey, 1988).

Harvey, P. (1988) Language awareness. English Today. The International Review of the English Language 13 (1), 23-26.
 
[Sprachbewusstheit ist] bemüht darum, Kommunikationsfähigkeit zu fördern, das Wissen und die Sensibilität von Menschen darüber zu erhöhen, wie Sprache in verschiedenen Kontexten und Lebenswelten gebraucht wird,  und schließlich, das Niveau positiver, einsichtsvoller Toleranz zu heben. (...) Sie will durch Bildung nicht nur die Fähigkeit fördern, Sprache effektiv zu verwenden, sondern auch den Gebrauch und Missbrauch der Sprache im Kontext des Alltagslebens zu erkennen; sie betont eher, was angemessen ist und weniger, was als korrekt oder inkorrekt angesehen wird" (Harvey, 1988).
 
Harvey, P. (1988) Language awareness. English Today. The International Review of the English Language 13 (1), 23-26. [Übersetzung ins Deutsche: K.-B. Boeckmann]
Comment
Kommentar
Language awareness is a broad term, and it may be appropriate to focus on different elements in different contexts. Hawkins (1999) sees language awareness as a ‘pentagon’ of five elements: mastering the mother tongue; language awareness in the curriculum; education of the ear; ouverture aux languages; and learning how to learn the foreign language.

In the publication, "Language and cultural awareness: practical ideas for classroom use" (Evans et al. 2005), Lamb identifies three main aims of language awareness programmes:
  • Investigating language: developing an awareness of language
  • Learning how to learn: developing an awareness of language learning
  • Enjoying diversity: intercultural awareness and multilingualism

Evans, J., Wicksteed, K. and Chambers, P. (2005) Language and cultural awareness: practical ideas for classroom use. (London: Specialist Schools and Academies Trust).

Hawkins, E.W. (1999) Foreign Language Study and Language Awareness. Language Awareness 8 (3&4), 124-142.
Sprachbewusstheit ist ein breiter Terminus und es kann angemessen sein, in verschiedenen Kontexten auf verschiedene Elemente zu fokussieren. Hawkins (1999) sieht Sprachbewusstheit als ein 'Pentagon' von fünf Elementen: Beherrschung der Muttersprache; Sprachbewusstheit im Curriculum; Erziehung des Ohrs; Öffnung für Sprachen und Lernen, wie eine Fremdsprache gelernt wird.
 
In der Publikation "Language and cultural awareness: practical ideas for classroom use" (Evans u.a. 2005), nennt Lamb drei Hauptziele von Sprachbewusstheitsprogrammen:
  • Sprache untersuchen: Sprachbewusstheit entwickeln
  • Lernen lernen: Bewusstheit für Sprachenlernen entwickeln
  • Diversität genießen: interkulturelle Bewusstheit und Multilingualismus

Evans, J., Wicksteed, K. and Chambers, P. (2005) Language and cultural awareness: practical ideas for classroom use. (London: Specialist Schools and Academies Trust).

Hawkins, E.W. (1999) Foreign Language Study and Language Awareness. Language Awareness 8 (3&4), 124-142. [Übersetzung ins Deutsche: K.-B. Boeckmann]

 

 

Literacy/Literacies - Literalitäten

 

Example and reference
Beispiel und Referenz
“In developing contexts the issue of literacy is often represented as simply a technical one: that people need to be taught how to decode letters and they can do what they like with their newly acquired literacy after that, an approach I have referred to as an 'autonomous' model of literacy (...). The 'autonomous' model of literacy works from the assumption that literacy in itself — autonomously— will have effects on other social and cognitive practices. The model, however, disguises the cultural and ideological assumptions that underpin it and that can then be presented as though they are neutral and universal: the research described in this volume challenges this view and suggests that in practice the approach is simply imposing Western conceptions of literacy on to other cultures. The alternative, ideological model of literacy, to which many of the chapters in this book refer, offers a more culturally sensitive view of literacy practices as they vary from one context to another. This model starts from different premises than the autonomous model—it posits instead that literacy is a social practice, not simply a technical and neutral skill; that it is always embedded in socially constructed epistemological principles. It is about knowledge: the ways in which people address reading and writing are themselves rooted in conceptions of knowledge, identity, being. Literacy, in this sense, is always contested, both its meanings and its practices, hence particular versions of it are always ‘ideological’, they are always rooted in a particular world-view and a desire for that view of literacy to dominate and to marginalise others (...). The argument about social literacies (...) suggests that engaging with literacy is always a social act even from the outset. The ways in which teachers or facilitators and their students interact is already a social practice that affects the nature of the literacy being learned and the ideas about literacy held by the participants, especially the new learners and their position in relations of power. It is not valid to suggest that ‘literacy’ can be ‘given’ neutrally and then its ‘social’ effects only experienced afterwards.

Street, B. (ed.) (2001) Literacy and development: ethnographic perspectives. London: Routledge,  7-8.

"Im Zusammenhang mit Entwicklung wird die Thematik Literalität oft einfach als technische verstanden: dass Menschen gelehrt werden müssen, wie Buchstaben dekodiert werden und dann mit ihrer neuerworbenen Literalität tun können was sie möchten, ein Ansatz den ich als ein 'autonomes' Modell von Literalität bezeichnet habe (...). Das 'autonome' Modell der Literalität basiert auf der Annahme, dass Literalität von selbst – autonom – Effekte auf weitere soziale und kognitive Praktiken haben wird. Das Modell verbirgt jedoch die kulturellen und ideologischen Annahmen, die mit ihm einhergehen und die dann so präsentiert werden können, als seien sie neutral und universell:[neuere] Forschungen (...) kritisieren diese Sicht und gehen davon aus, dass dieser Ansatz in der Praxis einfach westliche Konzepte von Literalität anderen Kulturen aufdrängt. Das alternative, ideologische Modell von Literalität (...) bietet einen kultursensibleren Blick auf Literalitätspraktiken, wie sie von Land zu Land variieren. Dieses Modell geht von anderen Voraussetzungen aus als das autonome Modell — es stellt Literalität als soziale Praxis dar, nicht einfach als technische und neutrale Fertigkeit; dass sie immer in sozial konstruierte epistemologische Prinzipien eingebettet ist. Es geht um Wissen: die Art wie Menschen Lesen und Schreiben angehen sind verwurzelt in Konzepten von Wissen, Identität, Sein. Literalität in diesem Sinne wird immer wieder in Frage gestellt, sowohl in ihren Bedeutungen als auch in ihren Praktiken, daher sind bestimmte Formen von ihr immer 'ideologisch', sie sind immer in einem bestimmten Weltbild verwurzelt und einem Bestreben dieser Sicht von Literalität zu dominieren und andere zu marginalisieren (...). Die Art in der Lehrkräfte bzw. Vermittler/innen und Lernende interagieren ist bereits eine soziale Praxis, die die Art der Literalität die gelernt wird beeinflusst und die Vorstellungen, die die Beteiligten von Literalität haben, besonders neue Lernende und ihre Position im Verhältnis zur Macht. Es ist nicht zutreffend, anzunehmen, dass 'Literalität' neutral 'gegeben' und ihre 'sozialen' Effekte erst nachträglich erlebt werden können.

Street, B. (ed.) (2001) Literacy and development: ethnographic perspectives. London: Routledge,  7-8. [Übersetzung ins Deutsche: K.-B. Boeckmann]

Definition
Definition
 “Communication skill. The term 'literacy' originally, and most often, applied to written communication. However it can also be applied to other forms, as in media literacy, computer literacy.”

Department for Children, Schools and Families, The Key Stage 3 Framework for Languages: Glossary: 7 (downloaded 2 November 2009)
 
"Kommunikationsfertigkeit. Der Begriff 'Literalität' bezeichnete ursprünglich, und meistens, schriftliche Kommunikation. Er kann jedoch auch auf andere Formen angewendet werden, wie in medialer oder informatischer Literalität (im deutschsprachigen Raum oft auch als 'Medienkompetenz' bezeichnet, Anm. d. Übers.)."

Department for Children, Schools and Families, The Key Stage 3 Framework for Languages: Glossary: 7 (downloaded 2 November 2009) [Übersetzung ins Deutsche: K.-B. Boeckmann]
Comment
Kommentar
 It is clear from the extract from Street (2001) that literacy does not simply mean being able to read and write text.  The following extracts unpick the various meanings of literacy, providing a clear picture of why it is necessary to refer to ‘literacies’ in the plural.

“Literacy is primarily something people do; it is an activity, located in the space between thought and text. Literacy does not just reside in people’s heads as a set of skills to be learned, and it does not just reside on paper, captured as texts to be analysed. Like all human activity, literacy is essentially social, and it is located in the interaction between people" (Barton and Hamilton 1998: 3).

Their six-point outline of how literacy functions as a set of social practices expands on this definition:
  • "Literacy is best understood as a set of social practices; these can be inferred from events which are mediated by written texts.
  •  There are different literacies associated with different domains of life.
  • Literacy practices are patterned by social institutions and power relationships, and some literacies become more dominant, visible and influential than others.
  • Literacy practices are purposeful and embedded in broader social goals and cultural practices.
  • Literacy is historically situated.
  • Literacy practices change, and new ones are frequently acquired through processes of informal learning and sense making" (Barton and Hamilton 1998: 7).
Barton, D. and Hamilton, M. (1998) Local Literacies: Reading and Writing in One Community. London: Routledge.

In addition to the socially and culturally situated nature of literacy, the picture becomes even more complex when we consider the impact of new technologies. Here we can refer to "new" or "digital" literacies.

“As we move from an industrial to a post-industrial information economy, one in which print literacy is not obsolete but certainly substantially transformed, then surely we need broader definitions of knowledge, literacy and pedagogy which will include study of the intertextuality of imageries, texts, icons and artefacts of new information economies, of media and of popular culture” (Luke 1998: 27).

Luke, C. (1998) ‘Pedagogy and Authority: Lessons from Feminist and Cultural Studies, Postmodernism and Feminist Pedagogy’, in D. Buckingham (ed.), Teaching Popular Culture: Beyond Radical Pedagogy. London: UCL Press.

The above are extracts from Mackey, M. (2002) Literacies across media. London: RoutledgeFalmer: 5-6.
 

Durch den Auszug aus Street (2001) wird klar, dass Literalität nicht einfach bedeutet, Texte lesen und schreiben zu können. Die folgenden Zitate illustrieren die verschiedenen Bedeutungen von Literalität, wodurch deutlich wird, warum von 'Literalitäten' im Plural zu sprechen ist.

"Literalität ist vor allem etwas, das Menschen tun; es ist eine Aktivität zwischen Denken und Text. Literalität ist nicht bloß in den Köpfen der Menschen als erlernbare Fertigkeit vorhanden und sie ist nicht nur auf Papier, in Form von zu analysierenden Texten. Wie alle menschliche Aktivität, ist Literalität wesentlich sozial und findet in der Interaktion zwischen Menschen statt" (Barton und Hamilton 1998: 3). [Übersetzung ins Deutsche: K.-B. Boeckmann]

Ihr Aufriss der Funktionen von Literalität als soziale Praxis in sechs Punkten erweitert diese Definition:

  • "Literalität ist am ehesten als Kombination sozialer Praxen zu verstehen, diese können aus Ereignissen erschlossen werden, die durch schriftliche Texte vermittelt werden;
  • Es gibt verschiedenen Literalitäten in Verbindung mit verschiedenen Lebenswelten;
  • Praxen der Literalität sind durch soziale Einrichtungen und Machtverhältnisse gekennzeichnet und einige werden dominanter, sichtbarer und einflussreicher als andere;
  • Praxen der Literalität sind intentional und eingebettet in breitere soziale Ziele und kulturelle Praxen;
  • Literalität ist historisch verortet;
  • Praxen der Literalität ändern sich und werden häufig durch informelle Lern- und Sinnentnahmeprozesse neu erworben" (Barton and Hamilton 1998: 7).

Barton, D. und Hamilton, M. (1998) Local Literacies: Reading and Writing in One Community. London: Routledge. [Übersetzung ins Deutsche: K.-B. Boeckmann]

Zusätzlich zur sozialen und kulturellen Verankerung von Literalität, wir es noch komplexer, wenn wir den Einfluss neuer Technologien bedenken. In diesem Zusammenhang sprechen wir von "neuer" oder "digitaler" Literalität.

"Während wir uns von einer industriellen zu einer postindustriellen Informations-Wirtschaft bewegen, in der Print-Literalität zwar nicht obsolet, aber jedenfalls substanziell anders ist, brauchen wir unbedingt breitere Definitionen von Wissen, Literalität und Didaktik, die das Studium von Intertextualität von Illustrationen, Texten, Icons und Artefakten der neuen Informationswirtschaft, der Medien und Populärkultur" (Luke 1998: 27).

Luke, C. (1998) ‘Pedagogy and Authority: Lessons from Feminist and Cultural Studies, Postmodernism and Feminist Pedagogy’, in D. Buckingham (ed.), Teaching Popular Culture: Beyond Radical Pedagogy. London: UCL Press. [Übersetzung ins Deutsche: K.-B. Boeckmann]

Die obigen Auszüge stammen aus: Mackey, M. (2002) Literacies across media. London: RoutledgeFalmer: 5-6.

 

Multilingual (Education) / Multilingual (Multilinguale Bildung)

Example and reference
Beispiel und Referenz
 “In a true multilingual system, all languages can have their legitimate place: mother tongues, languages of regional, national and wider communication. English an all other world languages can play their role; they can be healer languages and not ‘killer languages’.”  (Tove Skutnabb-Kangas, Robert Phillipson, Ajit K. Mohanty, Minati Panda (eds.) 2009: Social Justice Through Multilingual Education. Multilingual Matters (Linguistic Diversity and Language Rights), 5-6)

“The political history of the 19th and 20th centuries and the ideology of 'one state - one nation - one language' have given rise to the idea that monolingualism has always been the default or normal case in Europe and more or less a precondition for political loyality. Facing this situation, it has been overlooked that the vast majority of the world's population - in whatever form or conditions - is multilingual.”  (Kurt Braunmüller and Gisella Ferraresi (eds.) 2003: Aspects of Multilingualism in European Language History. John Benjamins (Hamburg Studies on Multilingualism 2), 1)

“Acceptance of multilingual reality and the formulation of language allocation decisions on the basis of this implies a perspective which seeks interlinkages between various languages rather than oppositions between them. This perspective can be realised on the basis of enrichment-oriented models of multilingual education which are essential for the development of both linguistic resources and cultural understanding.” (Pattanayak, Debi Prasanna 1990: Multilingualism in India, 90)
 
Definition
Definition

 “This leads to the distinction between plurilingualism as a speaker’s competence (being able to use more than one language) and multilingualism as the presence of languages in a given geographical area: there is a shift, therefore, from a perspective focusing on languages (a state may be referred to as mnolingual or multilingual) to one that focuses on speakers.” (Beacco Jean-Claude and Byram Michael  2003: Guide for the development of language education policies in Europe: from linguistic diversity to plurilingual education. Draft 1, 8)

“In recent years, the concept of plurilingualism has grown in importance in the Council of Europe's approach to language learning. Plurilingualism differs from multilingualism, which is the knowledge of a number of languages, or the co-existence of different languages in a given society. Multilingualism may be attained by simply diversifying the languages on offer in a particular school or educational system, or by encouraging pupils to learn more than one foreign language, or reducing the dominant position of English in international communication.” (Council of Europe 2001: Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. Learning, Teaching, Assessment, 4)

“The resolution supported the view that the requirements of global and national participation, and the specific needs of particular, culturally and linguistically distinct communities can only be addressed by multilingual education. In regions where the language of the learner is not the official or national language of the country, bilingual and multilingual education can make mother tongue instruction possible while providing at the same time the acquisition of languages used in larger areas of the country and the world. This additive approach to bilingualism is different from the so called subtractive bilingualism which aims to move children on to a second language as a language of instruction.” (Education in a multilingual world. UNESCO Education Position Paper 2003, p 17-18)

 
Comment
Kommentar
 As seen in the quotes above, the Council of Europe and the ECML distinguish between the terms “plurilingualism“ and “multilingualism“ from a sociological point of view. While plurilingualism is the competence of an individual being able to use different languages, multilingualism stresses the aspect of societies with members speaking different languages. As definitions are not clear-cut, discussions about plurilingualism and multilingualism are still going on. Therefore readers may find very different ideas about the term multilingualism.

Multilingualism can be seen as a normal state of any given society, even if the “modern” Europe through national states and languages tries to give the impression of monolingualism. Often people think of multilingual societies on other continents and forget that also Europe has a long history of multilingualism (cf. Braunmüller & Ferraresi (eds.) 2003).

Multilingual education aims at including pupils with many language backgrounds in one education system. Students shall have the possibility to develop their multilingualism, and not be forced in abandoning their mother tongue in favour for a majority language. As the Unesco points out, multilingual education can be necessary in very different situations: on the one hand there are many regions with the existence of many language groups that share education facilities, on the other hand many (especially urban) areas experience the effects of globalisation and where schools have to face the reality of sometimes up to 30 different languages in a classroom (Education in a multilingual world. UNESCO Education Position Paper 2003, 13).