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EMILE dans des langues autres que l'anglais –
Transitions réussies entre les différents niveaux d'enseignement

Cette page sera disponible en français en 2024. Veuillez vous référer aux pages en anglais pour le moment.

Teaching materials

In an article, where Guerrettaz, Engman & Matsumoto (2021)Guerrettaz, A. M., Engman, M. M., & Matsumoto, Y. (2021).
Empirically defining language learning and teaching materials in use through sociomaterial perspectives. The Modern Language Journal, 105, 3-20.
, empirically define the concept of language learning and teaching materials, the authors state: ‘Language learning and teaching (LLT) materials – like teacher-created handouts, textbooks, and overhead transparencies – are central elements of language classrooms worldwide.’ (p.3)
Bundsgaard and Hansen (2011)Bundsgaard, J. & Hansen, T. I. (2011).
Evaluation of learning materials: A holistic framework. Journal of Learning Design, 4(4), 31-44. https://www.jld.edu.au/article/view/87
distinguish three types of learning materials:  
Functional learning materials (tools), e.g., paper, mobile phones, black and white boards.
Semantic learning materials (texts), e.g., film, literature, pictures and songs.
‘Didacticized’ learning materials, e.g., textbooks and online teaching materials.
The resources focus on ‘didactizised’ learning materials, “characterised by combining tools and texts and facilitating learning and teaching”Bundsgaard, J. & Hansen, T. I. (2011).
Evaluation of learning materials: A holistic framework. Journal of Learning Design, 4(4), 31-44. Quote on p. 33. https://www.jld.edu.au/article/view/87

Teaching materials and CLIL LOTE transitions

Why should transitions in CLIL LOTE be supported through teaching materials – what is the added value? 

Ajoke (2017)Ajoke (2017)
The Importance of Instructional Materials in Teaching English as a Second Language. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention, 6(9), 36-44.
, who investigates the importance of instructional materials, summarises their relevance as follows: ‘The importance of instructional materials in teaching and learning cannot be underestimated. A lot has been written to show the indispensable role of materials in curricular implementation. Instructional materials make learning more interesting, practical, realistic and appealing. They also enable both the teachers and students to participate actively and effectively in lesson sessions. They give room for acquisition of skills and knowledge and development of self-confidence and self-actualization.’ (p. 40)

From this perspective, language learning and teaching materials supporting CLIL LOTE transitions have three main characteristics:

  • They support teachers to implement CLIL LOTE curricula and to facilitate transitions between educational stages.
  • They facilitate students’ CLIL LOTE learning processes and their transitions between educational stages.
  • They potentially motivate teachers and students for CLIL LOTE and CLIL LOTE transitions.

The materials on this page are based on the Guiding principles for CLIL. Furthermore, we recommend that those who intend to design CLIL teaching materials to consult Coyle, Hood and Marsh’s (2010) seven principles for integrating language and content.


The CLIL LOTE study has shown that:
  • The lack of appropriate teaching materials or information on how to establish a CLIL LOTE programme was seen as one of the main challenges in implementing CLIL both in language classroom and in other subjects.
  • The connection to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages was seen as one of the main ways CLIL LOTE transitions are supported in the language classroom.

Seven principles for integrating language and content

Content matter is not only about acquiring knowledge and skills but also about learners creating their own knowledge and understanding and developing skills (personalized learning).
Content is related to learning and thinking (cognition). To enable learners to create their own interpretation of content, it must be analysed for its linguistic demands.
Thinking processes (cognition) need to be analysed for their linguistic demands.
Language needs to be learned which is related to the learning context, to learning through that language, to reconstructing the content, and to related cognitive processes. This language needs to be transparent and accessible.
Interaction in the learning context is fundamental to learning. This has implications when the learning context operates through the medium of a foreign language.
The relationship between cultures and languages is complex. Intercultural awareness is fundamental to CLIL.
CLIL is embedded in the wider educational context in which it is developed and therefore must take into account contextual variables in order to be effectively realized.

Coyle, D., Hood, P., and Marsh, D. (2010). CLIL: Content and Language Integrated Learning, New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, p. 42.


Are you a teacher or a teaching material designer – and do you want to gather ideas for how to support transitions in CLIL LOTE through teaching materials? On this page you can find two main resources:

Language descriptors for CLIL LOTE transitions based on the CEFR

Marina Mattheoudakis, professor in Applied Linguistics at Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, has been the coordinator of the CLIL LOTE language descriptors working group. She briefly introduces the language descriptors for CLIL LOTE in the following video:

Sample lessons plans facilitating vertical and horisontal transitions in CLIL LOTE

View sample lesson plans

  • The sample lessons plans can be described and analysed based on the model ‘Vertical and horisontal transitions in CLIL’ (see below) that was developed by the project team drawing on the German FörMig-project German FörMig-project
    The German project „FörMig – Förderung von Kindern und Jugendlichen mit Migrationshintergrund“ is e.g. described in Beacco et al. (2016, p. 49).

    Beacco et al. 2016
    A Handbook for Curriculum Development and Teacher Training. The Language Dimension in All Subjects, Council of Europe.
  • The model visualises vertical transitions in CLIL LOTE from primary (ISCED 1), lower secondary education (ISCED 2), upper secondary education (ISCED 3) to tertiary education (ISCED 5-7).
  • Furthermore, the model visualises horisontal transitions in CLIL LOTE establishing links between CLIL and plurilingual education in general and building bridges to students’ home languages. These horisontal CLIL transitions can be referred to as Content and Languages Integrated Learning (CLsIL)Content and Languages Integrated Learning (CLsIL)
    The concept of Content and Languages Integrated Learning (CLsIL) has been introduced by Candelier et al. in the “Discovery Module” of the Framework of Reference for Pluralistic Approaches to Languages and Cultures (FREPA/CARAP). Based on Candelier et al’s (2012) definition for pluralistic approaches to languages and cultures, CLsIL is in our project defined as follows: The term ‘Content and Languages Integrated Learning (CLsIL)’ refers to didactic approaches that use teaching/learning activities involving several (i.e. more than one) languages/varieties of languages in Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL), instead of dealing with the target language in isolation

Vertical and horisontal transitions in CLIL

View sample lesson plans

click here

Quote: Recommendation

“The various models of immersion and bilingual education and CLIL (content and language integrated learning) occupy a special place in plurilingual and intercultural education because they use immersion techniques to develop learners’ academic proficiency in a language that is not the dominant language of schooling. […] By making the link between content and language learning more visible, A pluriliteracies approach to teaching for learning helps CLIL teachers ensure deep learning at both language and subject level, while Conbat + presents an innovative way of managing diversity in the classroom by combining plurilingual and pluricultural approaches with content-based teaching. ”

The Council of Europe’s Recommendation on the importance of plurilingual and intercultural education for democratic culture - Explanatory Memorandum

Working group

Four working groups focused on CLIL LOTE transitions teaching materials:

The language descriptors working group which prepared the resources of this section was coordinated by Marina Mattheoudakis (Αριστοτέλειο Πανεπιστήμιο Θεσσαλονίκης, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece). Group members: Erica Kawka Armeni (Directorate for Learning and Assessment Programmes, Malta), Maria Paraponiari (Odyssey Charter School, Wilmington, Delaware, USA) and Karola Velberg (Co-Educational School and University of Tallinn, Estonia). Consultant: Eli Moe (Universitet i Bergen, Norway, coordinator of the ECML project Language skills for successful subject learning. CEFR linked descriptors for mathematics and history/civics).

The working group A pluriliteracies approach to teaching for learning which prepared the resources of this section was coordinated by Olga Heitor (CLUNL - Centro de Linguística da Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Portugal), Valentina Piacentini (I. C. “Via Merope”, Rome, Italy, and CIDTFF research centre, Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal) and Ana Kanareva-Dimitrovska (Det Nationale Center for Fremmedsprog, Danish National Contact Point for ECML, Aarhus Universitet, Denmark). Group members: Helen English (Maynooth Post Primary School, Ireland) and Spiwe Thandabani Rønning (Nasjonalt senter for engelsk og fremmedspråk i opplæringa and Høgskolen i Østfold, Norway). Consultant: Oliver Meyer (Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Germany, coordinator of the ECML project A pluriliteracies approach to teaching for learning).

The ConBat+ working group which prepared the resources of this section was coordinated by Mercè Bernaus (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain, coordinator of the ECML project Content based teaching + plurilingual/cultural awareness) and Evangelia Moussouri (University of Thessaloniki, Greece). Group members: Vassoula Alexandridou (Αριστοτέλειο Πανεπιστήμιο Θεσσαλονίκης, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece), Christina Karasava (7o Δημοτικό Σχολείο Ασπροπύργου, 7th primary school of Aspropurgos, Athens, Greece), Neus Lorenzo (Societat Catalana de Pedagogia, Spain), Chaido Natsi (Περιφερειακό Κέντρο Εκπαιδευτικού Σχεδιασμού Ηπείρου, ΠΕ.Κ.Ε.Σ. Ηπείρου, Greece), Timea Kadas Pickel (Université Paris 8, France), Anthippi Potolia (Université Paris 8, France) and Ani Tamazyan (European University of Armenia, Armenia).

The Euromania working group which prepared the resources of this section was coordinated by Pierre Escudé (Université de Bordeaux, France, coordinator of the Euromania project). Group members: Marlena Deckert (Uniwersytet Warszawski, Poland), Malgorzata Piotrowska-Skrzypek (Uniwersytet Warszawski, Poland) and Daniel Reimann (Universität Duisburg-Essen, Germany).