|Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (Council of Europe, 2001)
|| The CEFR provides a sophisticated, multidimensional model of language use, dividing real life communicative activities into four modes of communication, plus general competences and communicative language competences. The CEFR defines six expandable reference levels: A1, A2, B1, B2, C1 and C2 through ‘Can Do descriptors’. The descriptor scales are intended to be used to profile language user/learners ability across different types of activities and competences.
|Common European Framework of Reference for Languages - Companion Volume (Council of Europe, 2018)
|| The CEFR Companion Volume complements and updates the CEFR and further develops some constructs in a clear, accessible introductory text. It provides a wealth of new scales for different aspects of language proficiency (including mediation, plurilingual/pluricultural competence, online communication, literature appreciation), a new analytic scale for phonological competence, and descriptors for sign language.